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  • Publication
    Country-level gender inequality is associated with structural differences in the brains of women and men
    (2023) Zugman, André; Alliende, Luz María; Medel, Vicente; Bethlehem, Richard A.I.; Seidlitz, Jakob; Ringlein, Grace; Arango, Celso; Arnatkevičiūtė, Aurina; Asmal, Laila; Bellgrove, Mark; Benegal, Vivek; Bernardo, Miquel; Billeke, Pablo; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge; Bressan, Rodrigo; Busatto, Geraldo F.; Castro, Mariana N.; Chaim-Avancini, Tiffany; Compte, Albert; Costanzi, Monise; Czepielewsk, Leticia; Dazzan, Paola; Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo de la; Forti, Marta Di; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M.; Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana María; Ples, Stefan Du; Duran, Fabio L. S.; Fittipaldi, Sol; Fornito, Alex; Freimer, Nelson B.; Gadelha, Ary; Gama, Clarissa S.; Garani, Ranjini; Garcia-Rizo, Clemente; Gonzalez Campo, Cecilia; Gonzalez-Valderrama, Alfonso; Guinjoan, Salvador; Holla, Bharath; Undurraga, Juan
    Gender inequality across the world has been associated with a higher risk to mental health problems and lower academic achievement in women compared to men. We also know that the brain is shaped by nurturing and adverse socio-environmental experiences. Therefore, unequal exposure to harsher conditions for women compared to men in gender-unequal countries might be reflected in differences in their brain structure, and this could be the neural mechanism partly explaining women's worse outcomes in gender-unequal countries. We examined this through a random-effects meta-analysis on cortical thickness and surface area differences between adult healthy men and women, including a meta-regression in which country-level gender inequality acted as an explanatory variable for the observed differences. A total of 139 samples from 29 different countries, totaling 7,876 MRI scans, were included. Thickness of the right hemisphere, and particularly the right caudal anterior cingulate, right medial orbitofrontal, and left lateral occipital cortex, presented no differences or even thicker regional cortices in women compared to men in gender-equal countries, reversing to thinner cortices in countries with greater gender inequality. These results point to the potentially hazardous effect of gender inequality on women's brains and provide initial evidence for neuroscience-informed policies for gender equality.
  • Publication
    Quantifying hierarchy and prestige in US ballet academies as social predictors of career success.
    (2023) Herrera-Guzmán, Yessica; Gates, Alexander J.; Candia Vallejos, Cristian; Barabási, Albert-László
    In the recent decade, we have seen major progress in quantifying the behaviors and the impact of scientists, resulting in a quantitative toolset capable of monitoring and predicting the career patterns of the profession. It is unclear, however, if this toolset applies to other creative domains beyond the sciences. In particular, while performance in the arts has long been difficult to quantify objectively, research suggests that professional networks and prestige of affiliations play a similar role to those observed in science, hence they can reveal patterns underlying successful careers. To test this hypothesis, here we focus on ballet, as it allows us to investigate in a quantitative fashion the interplay of individual performance, institutional prestige, and network effects. We analyze data on competition outcomes from 6363 ballet students affiliated with 1603 schools in the United States, who participated in the Youth America Grand Prix (YAGP) between 2000 and 2021. Through multiple logit models and matching experiments, we provide evidence that schools’ strategic network position bridging between communities captures social prestige and predicts the placement of students into jobs in ballet companies. This work reveals the importance of institutional prestige on career success in ballet and showcases the potential of network science approaches to provide quantitative viewpoints for the professional development of careers beyond science.
  • Publication
    The work, economic, and remittance stress and distress of the COVID-19 pandemic containment policies: The case of venezuelan migrants in Argentina and Chile.
    (2023) Real, Deisy Del; Crowhurst Pons, Felipe Ignacio; Olave, Lizeth
    According to the social stress process model, global crises are macro-level stressors that generate physiological stress and psychological distress. However, existing research has not identified immigrants’ COVID-19 containment policy stressors or examined the social stress of sending remittances amid crises. Drawing on in-depth longitudinal interviews with 46 Venezuelan immigrants— half before and half during the pandemic—in Chile and Argentina, we identified the COVID-19 containment policies’ stressors. We focused on Venezuelan immigrants because they constitute one of the largest internationally displaced populations, with most migrating within South America. We found that the governmental COVID-19 containment measures in both countries generated four stressors: employment loss, income loss, devaluation of employment status, and inability to send needed remittances. Moreover, sending remittances helped some migrants cope with concerns about loved ones in Venezuela. However, sending remittances became a social stressor when immigrants struggled to simultaneously sustain their livelihoods and send financial support to relatives experiencing hardships in Venezuela. For some immigrants, these adversities generated other stressors (e.g., housing instability) and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Broadly, for immigrants, the stressors of global crises transcend international borders and generate high stress, which strains their psychological well-being.
  • Publication
    Orcas remember what to copy: a deferred and interference‑resistant imitation study
    (2023) Zamorano-Abramson, José; Hernández‑Lloreda, Mª Victoria; Colmenares, Fernando; Call, Josep
    Response facilitation has often been portrayed as a “low level” category of social learning, because the demonstrator’s action, which is already in the observer’s repertoire, automatically triggers that same action, rather than induces the learning of a new action. One way to rule out response facilitation consists of introducing a delay between the demonstrator’s behavior and the observer’s response to let their possible efects wear of. However, this may not rule out “delayed response facilitation” in which the subject could be continuously “mentally rehearsing” the demonstrated actions during the waiting period. We used a do-as-the-other-did paradigm in two orcas to study whether they displayed cognitive control regarding their production of familiar actions by (1) introducing a delay ranging from 60 to 150 s between observing and producing the actions and (2) interspersing distractor (non-target) actions performed by the demonstrator and by the subjects during the delay period. These two manipulations were aimed at preventing the mental rehearsal of the observed actions during the delay period. Both orcas copied the model’s target actions on command after various delay periods, and crucially, despite the presence of distractor actions. These fndings suggest that orcas are capable of selectively retrieving a representation of an observed action to generate a delayed matching response. Moreover, these results lend further support to the proposal that the subjects’ performance relied not only on a mental representation of the specifc actions that were requested to copy, but also fexibly on the abstract and domain general rule requested by the specifc “copy command”. Our fndings strengthen the view that orcas and other cetaceans are capable of fexible and controlled social learning.
  • Publication
    Network anatomy in logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia
    (2023) Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Lorca-Puls, Diego L.; Lukic, Sladjana; Montembeault, Maxime; Gajardo-Vidal, Andrea; Licata, Abigail; Scheffler, Aaron; Battistella, Giovanni; Grasso, Stephanie M.; Bogley, Rian; Ratnasiri, Buddhika M.; La Joie, Renaud; Mundada, Nidhi S.; Europa, Eduardo; Rabinovici, Gil; Miller, Bruce L.; Leon, Jessica De; Henry, Maya L.; Miller, Zachary; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa
    The logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized linguistically by gradual loss of repetition and naming skills resulting from left posterior temporal and inferior parietal atrophy. Here, we sought to identify which specific cortical loci are initially targeted by the disease (epicenters) and investigate whether atrophy spreads through predetermined networks. First, we used cross-sectional structural MRI data from individuals with lvPPA to define putative disease epicenters using a surface-based approach paired with an anatomically fine-grained parcellation of the cortical surface (i.e., HCP-MMP1.0 atlas). Second, we combined cross-sectional functional MRI data from healthy controls and longitudinal structural MRI data from individuals with lvPPA to derive the epicenter-seeded resting-state networks most relevant to lvPPA symptomatology and ascertain whether functional connectivity in these networks predicts longitudinal atrophy spread in lvPPA. Our results show that two partially distinct brain networks anchored to the left anterior angular and posterior superior temporal gyri epicenters were preferentially associated with sentence repetition and naming skills in lvPPA. Critically, the strength of connectivity within these two networks in the neurologically-intact brain significantly predicted longitudinal atrophy progression in lvPPA. Taken together, our findings indicate that atrophy progression in lvPPA, starting from inferior parietal and temporoparietal junction regions, predominantly follows at least two partially nonoverlapping pathways, which may influence the heterogeneity in clinical presentation and prognosis.
  • Publication
    Evidence of the active participation of women in the intergroup conflict based on the use of aggression and cooperation
    (2023) Muñoz Reyes, José Antonio; Torrico-Bazoberry, Daniel; Polo Rodrigo, Pablo; Figueroa, Oriana; Guzmán-Lavín, Eugenio; Fajardo, Gabriela; Valenzuela-Martinez, Nohelia T.; Belinchón, Montserrat; Rodriguez-Sickert, Carlos; Pita, Miguel
    Intergroup conflict has been a persistent aspect of human societies since the emergence of our species. Various researchers have proposed that competition between groups has acted as a key selective force throughout human evolutionary history. Such intergroup competition for limited resources exacerbated the expression of intergroup aggression and intragroup cooperation. Furthermore, it would have a sexual dimorphism, with men demonstrating increased sensitivity to conflict threats—in order to maximize reproductive opportunities—, while women generally reject from active engagement in intergroup conflict. In the present study, we conducted behavioral experiments under controlled laboratory conditions to measure cooperation and aggression from using virtual games, specifically the Public Good Games and the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm, in a sample of 541 participants. We created control and experimental intergroup competition scenarios, where aggression and cooperation were necessary to increase monetary rewards. Our results shows that men modulate aggression and cooperation in the presence of intergroup conflict. In addition, our data also reveals that women cooperate more than men and display heightened levels of cooperation and aggression when confronted with intergroup conflict. These findings prompt a reevaluation of current functional theoretical models concerning the role of women in intergroup conflict and suggest that the dynamics of human aggression and cooperation may be more nuanced than previously believed.
  • Publication
    Educación intercultural en Chile: La experiencia inclusiva del taller «Palabras de unión»
    (2023) Pavez Soto, Iskra; Ortiz López, Juan; Alfaro Contreras, Carmen; Colomés, Sofía; Villegas, Pamela; Grandon, Nicolás; Acuña, Jeanette; Coloma, Camila; Gonzalez, Andrea
    El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la percepción que tienen las familias migrantes de origen haitiano, cuya lengua materna es el creole, sobre la experiencia de sus hijas e hijos en el taller ‘Palabras de Unión’ donde facilitaron el proceso de inmersión lingüística. Mediante una metodología cualitativa, se realizaron nueve entrevistas semiestructuradas a madres y padres, apoderados de un establecimiento público de enseñanza básica, ubicado en un barrio vulnerable de Santiago, Región Metropolitana, Chile. Los resultados reflejan que las familias migrantes valoran el apoyo recibido de parte del taller, especialmente las estrategias utilizadas por el equipo interdisciplinario conformado por profesores, fonoaudiólogos y personal docente. No obstante, se observa una alta demanda de parte de los apoderados por tener más oportunidades de comunicación con la escuela. Se reconoce que las nuevas tecnologías de la información funcionan como un canal accesible que puede facilitar la participación de toda la comunidad escolar.
  • Publication
    Degeneracy in the neurological model of auditory speech repetition
    (2023) Sajid, Noor; Gajardo-Vidal, Andrea; Ekert, Justyna O.; Lorca-Puls, Diego L.; Hope, Thomas M. H.; Green, David W.; Friston, Karl J.; Price, Cathy J.
    Both classic and contemporary models of auditory word repetition involve at least four left hemisphere regions: primary auditory cortex for processing sounds; pSTS (within Wernicke's area) for processing auditory images of speech; pOp (within Broca's area) for processing motor images of speech; and primary motor cortex for overt speech articulation. Previous functional-MRI (fMRI) studies confirm that auditory repetition activates these regions, in addition to many others. Crucially, however, contemporary models do not specify how regions interact and drive each other during auditory repetition. Here, we used dynamic causal modelling, to test the functional interplay among the four core brain regions during single auditory word and pseudoword repetition. Our analysis is grounded in the principle of degeneracy-i.e., many-to-one structure-function relationships-where multiple neural pathways can execute the same function. Contrary to expectation, we found that, for both word and pseudoword repetition, (i) the effective connectivity between pSTS and pOp was predominantly bidirectional and inhibitory; (ii) activity in the motor cortex could be driven by either pSTS or pOp; and (iii) the latter varied both within and between individuals. These results suggest that different neural pathways can support auditory speech repetition. This degeneracy may explain resilience to functional loss after brain damage.
  • Publication
    Facing the blue Anthropocene in Patagonia by empowering indigenous peoples’ action networks
    (2023) Araos, Francisco; Hidalgo, Carlos; Brañas, Francisco; Anbleyth-Evans, Jeremy; Diestre, Florencia; Yu Iwama, Allan
    Chilean Patagonia is a globally significant ecosystem for biodiversity, and simultaneously a global center for the aquaculture industry. Environmental crises have accelerated over the last decades with the installation of salmon farms, increasing impacts on indigenous livelihoods and the habitats of marine species. Indigenous Marine Areas (IMA) have confronted the effects of the blue Anthropocene in Chilean Patagonia, causing diverse indigenous communities to evolve mechanisms to enhance ocean health and sustainability. Based on an analysis of the main socio-spatial trends of IMA in Patagonia and their action networks in the Los Lagos Region, this study demonstrates the importance of a multiple agent network to mobilize the implementation of IMA. The study shows how indigenous people face the challenges of the UN Ocean Decade, enhancing the sustainability pathways of blue Patagonia.
  • Publication
    Imitation of Novel Intransitive Body Actions in a Beluga Whale (Delphinapterus leucas): A “Do as Other Does” Study
    (2023) Zamorano-Abramson, José; Hernández-Lloreda, María Victoria
    Cetaceans are well known for their unique behavioral habits, such as calls and tactics. The possibility that these are acquired through social learning continues to be explored. This study investigates the ability of a young beluga whale to imitate novel behaviors. Using a do-as-other does paradigm, the subject observed the performance of a conspecific demonstrator involving familiar and novel behaviors. The subject: (1) learned a specific ‘copy’ command; (2) copied 100% of the demonstrator’s familiar behaviors and accurately reproduced two out of three novel actions; (3) achieved full matches on the first trial for a subset of familiar behaviors; and (4) demonstrated proficiency in coping with each familiar behavior as well as the two novel behaviors. This study provides the first experimental evidence of a beluga whale’s ability to imitate novel intransitive (non-object-oriented) body movements on command. These results contribute to our understanding of the remarkable ability of cetaceans, including dolphins, orcas, and now beluga whales, to engage in multimodal imitation involving sounds and movements. This ability, rarely documented in non humananimals, has significant implications for the development of survival strategies, such as the acquisition of knowledge about natal philopatry, migration routes, and traditional feeding areas, among these marine mammals.
  • Publication
    Another in need enhances prosociality and modulates frontal theta oscillations in young adults
    (2023) Lavín, Claudio; Soto-Icaza, Patricia; López, Vladimir; Billeke, Pablo
    Introduction: Decision-making is a process that can be strongly affected by social factors. Evidence has shown how people deviate from traditional rationalchoice predictions under different levels of social interactions. The emergence of prosocial decision-making, defined as any action that is addressed to benefit another individual even at the expense of personal benefits, has been reported as an example of such social influence. Furthermore, brain evidence has shown the involvement of structures such as the prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, and midcingulate cortex during decision settings in which a decision maker interacts with others under physical pain or distress or while being observed by others. Methods: Using a slightly modified version of the dictator game and EEG recordings, we tested the hypothesis that the inclusion of another person into the decision setting increases prosocial decisions in young adults and that this increase is higher when the other person is associated with others in need. At the brain level, we hypothesized that the increase in prosocial decisions correlates with frontal theta activity. Results and Discussion: The results showed that including another person in the decision, setting increased prosocial behavior only when this presence was associated with someone in need. This effect was associated with an increase in frontocentral theta-oscillatory activity. These results suggest that the presence of someone in need enhances empathy concerns and norm compliance, raising the participants’ prosocial decision-making.
  • Publication
    Towards a comprehensive approach to mentalization-based treatment for children with autism: integrating attachment, neurosciences, and mentalizing
    (2023) Costa-Cordella, Stefanella; Soto-Icaza, Patricia; Borgeaud, Karin; Grasso-Cladera, Aitana; Malberg, Norka T.
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed based on socio-communicative difficulties, which are believed to result from deficits in mentalizing, mainly evidenced by alterations in recognizing and responding to the mental states of others. In recent years, efforts have been made to develop mentalization-based treatment (MBT) models for this population. These models focus on enhancing individuals’ ability to understand and reflect on their own mental states, as well as those of others. However, MBT approaches for people with ASD are limited by their existing theoretical background, which lacks a strong foundation grounded in neuroscience-based evidence properly integrated with attachment, and mentalizing. These are crucial aspects for understanding psychological processes in autism, and as such, they play a pivotal role in shaping the development of tailored and effective therapeutic strategies for this specific population. In this paper we review evidence related to the neurobiological, interpersonal, and psychological dimensions of autism and their implications for mentalizing processes. We also review previous mentalization-based frameworks on the psychosis continuum to provide a comprehensive understanding of attachment, neurobiology, and mentalization domains in therapeutic approaches for autism. After presenting a synthesis of the literature, we offer a set of clinical strategies for the work with children with autism. Finally, we provide recommendations to advance the field towards more robust models that can serve as a basis for evidence-based therapeutic strategies.
  • Publication
    La despótica confortabilidad del consumidor: la identidad de cliente en el mercado personalizado
    (2022) AEDO, ANDRES
    Las interacciones entre consumidores y oferentes han dejado de ser intercambios libres y voluntarios basados en la mutua conveniencia, pues en las transacciones de mercado han emergido prácticas despóticas y violentas por parte de los clientes hacia los trabajadores. Esta forma patológica de ejercicio del consumo es resultado del condicionamiento de la nueva sociedad de mercado marcada por la personalización de productos y servicios, posibilitando la emergencia de una nueva forma de identidad de consumidor que tiene como rasgo característico la confortabilidad de los clientes. Esta condición de personalización/confortabilidad hace que se estructure una relación de autoridad situacional entre oferta y demanda, y posibilita los tratos despóticos cuando los deseos de los clientes son perturbados.
  • Publication
    La ética de la confortabilidad personal: una nueva identidad económica
    (2022) ; AEDO, ANDRES; Vargas, Francisca
    Este artículo sostiene como hipótesis que una de las formas de comprender los comportamientos agresivos de los clientes hacia los trabajadores en el mercado contemporáneo puede sustentarse en la emergencia del derecho a la confortabilidad personal como característica de un nuevo espíritu del consumidor. Este derecho a la confortabilidad personal, derivado de una situación de autoridad y subordinación entre clientes y trabajadores, dada la personalización de los mercados contemporáneos, fue paradójicamente desplegado por las mismas empresas en sus procesos de atención a los clientes, tal como se aprecia en los manuales de atención al cliente analizados en este trabajo.
  • Publication
    The influence of the Kemmerer’s Mission in the Constitution of 1925
    (2022) Soto Velasco, Sebastián; Couyoumdjian, Juan Pablo
    The Kemmerer Mission, which visited Chile between July and October 1925, was hired in order to implement a series of monetary and financial reforms intended to achieve monetary stability in the country. As part of this work, it was also consulted regarding some articles of the Constitution that was being drafted during this period. The participation of the Kemmerer mission in the discussion regarding the budgetary and fiscal norms of what would be the Constitution of 1925 is a matter that has not been sufficiently studied either by the constitutional or economic history in Chile. Some of the proposals of the Mission, such as the debates on the presidential initiative, came to ratify issues already agreed upon. Others, such as the reduction of the discussion period for the budget and the requirement to approve funded bills, were widely welcomed. And there are other matters where Kemmerer’s proposals were rejected. Based on this, we conclude that its influence on these matters was limited. But although the stricture in budgetary matters proposed by the Kemmerer Mission was considered excessive in the country, even in an admittedly presidential convention, this marks the beginning of a trend that laid the foundations for the concentration of financial power in the Executive.
  • Publication
    COVID-19 aftermath: exploring the mental health emergency among students at a Northern Italian University
    (2022) Patrono, Alessandra; Renzetti, Stefano; Manco, Angela; Brunelli, Paola; Moncada, Stefanny M.; Macgowan, Mark J.; Placidi, Donatella; Calza, Stefano; Cagna, Giuseppa; Rota, Matteo; Memo, Maurizio; Tira, Maurizio; Lucchini, Roberto G.
    In this study, we investigated the symptoms of physical and mental health associated with lifestyle changes due to a lockdown among the students of a university in Northern Italy, one of the most affected areas in Europe during the first wave of COVID-19. We examined the psychopathological variations in relation to mental health problems in a young population. The goal was to develop interventions to resolve these new psychosocial problems. From June to July 2020, students participated in an anonymous survey asking about habits and symptoms that emerged during the lockdown and the COVID-19 pandemic. Five health outcomes were assessed: digestive disorders; headaches; fear of COVID-19; panic and anxiety crises; and depression/sadness. The conditions and duration of the social isolation, lifestyle, SARS-CoV-2 infection in the household, financial situation, and productivity were considered in the analysis. A total of 3533 students completed the survey. The participants experienced headaches, depression and sadness, digestive disorders, a fear of COVID-19, and anxiety/panic crises. The duration of isolation was associated with an increased risk of digestive disorders, headaches, and COVID-19 fear. The female gender, medium-intense telephone usage, sleep quality, memory difficulties, and performance reduction were associated with an increased risk of the health outcomes. Future interventions should focus on promoting and implementing different habits with the support of health and university organizations.
  • Publication
    Multimodal imitative learning and synchrony in cetaceans: A model for speech and singing evolution
    (2023) Zamorano-Abramson, José; Michon, Maëva; Hernández-Lloreda; Aboitiz, Francisco
    Multimodal imitation of actions, gestures and vocal production is a hallmark of the evolution of human communication, as both, vocal learning and visual-gestural imitation, were crucial factors that facilitated the evolution of speech and singing. Comparative evidence has revealed that humans are an odd case in this respect, as the case for multimodal imitation is barely documented in non-human animals. While there is evidence of vocal learning in birds and in mammals like bats, elephants and marine mammals, evidence in both domains, vocal and gestural, exists for two Psittacine birds (budgerigars and grey parrots) and cetaceans only. Moreover, it draws attention to the apparent absence of vocal imitation (with just a few cases reported for vocal fold control in an orangutan and a gorilla and a prolonged development of vocal plasticity in marmosets) and even for imitation of intransitive actions (not object related) in monkeys and apes in the wild. Even after training, the evidence for productive or “true imitation” (copy of a novel behavior, i.e., not pre-existent in the observer’s behavioral repertoire) in both domains is scarce. Here we review the evidence of multimodal imitation in cetaceans, one of the few living mammalian species that have been reported to display multimodal imitative learning besides humans, and their role in sociality, communication and group cultures. We propose that cetacean multimodal imitation was acquired in parallel with the evolution and development of behavioral synchrony and multimodal organization of sensorimotor information, supporting volitional motor control of their vocal system and audio-echoic-visual voices, body posture and movement integration
  • Publication
    When the agency wants too much: Experimental evidence on unfair audits and tax compliance
    (2023) Lancee, Bora; Rossel, Lucía; Kasper, Matthias
    This research investigates how unfairness in tax enforcement affects tax compliance. We study how unfair audits that overestimate a taxpayer’s true income affect the aggregate compliance level and the post-audit tax compliance of audited taxpayers. Using an online experiment with a representative sample of UK taxpayers, we find that introducing unfair audits has a positive effect on the aggregate compliance level. However, increasing the amount by which audits overestimate true income has no effect. Moreover, we find that the experience of unfairness in tax enforcement reduces post-audit tax compliance in the subsequent tax declaration by at least 7 percentage points. Our findings suggest that threatening taxpayers with unfair audits increases compliance in the aggregate, but behavioral responses to experiencing unfair audits undermine this effect.
  • Publication
    The Ethics of Fractional-Reserve Banking System: A Private Property Rights Approach
    (2023) Espinosa, Víctor I.; Alonso-Neira, Miguel A.; Huerta de Soto, Jesús
    It is generally stated that the fractional-reserve banking system (FRBS) is consistent with sustainable economic growth and development. While it assumes that depositors will not be a joint demand who will claim all their money simultaneously, it supposes that a monetary aggregate greater than the monetary base will not harm economic performance. However, the FRBS’s call to central banks casts doubt on the sustainability argument and its ethical support. This article explores the FRBS from the ethics of private property, proving a radically different course to promote sustainable economic growth and development. After reviewing and discussing the ethics of private property for the FRBS and its call for central banks, the case of fiat inflation and business cycles clarifies the narrow relationship between ethics and sustainability. These findings are applied to some modern ethical dilemmas around the FRBS, proving novel avenues for policy reform and research opportunities.
  • Publication
    Aportes epistemológicos para el análisis de la producción científica biomédica en torno a la niñez
    (2019) Larraín-Valenzuela, Josefina
    El siguiente artículo analiza, desde una perspectiva epistemológica, cuáles son los posibles mecanismos que operan en la producción de investigaciones científicas de carácter biomédico aplicadas a niños y niñas, y cómo influyen en la interpretación de los resultados, causando eventuales consecuencias que distan de los discursos emancipadores de la propia niñez. En el desarrollo del artículo se plantean tres posibles conflictos epistemológicos asociados a: la binariedad, la lógica de poder y la noción de realidad. La propuesta de hacer visibles estos conflictos permitiría explicar y comprender de manera crítica cómo se interpreta la producción científica del conocimiento. Cada hipótesis explicativa ofrece propuestas para incorporar, dentro de la producción científica, ciertas orientaciones provenientes de enfoques interdisciplinares como una forma de acercarse a la construcción del conocimiento desde una ética de la consecuencia que evite la vulneración de niños y niñas y se abran a mayores posibilidades de reconocimiento social.