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Nuestra plataforma Reúne, conserva y difunde la producción intelectual en formato digital de estudiantes, académicos e investigadores de la Universidad del Desarrollo. Es una plataforma web colaborativa diseñada y administrada por el Sistema de Bibliotecas, en el que participan las unidades académicas como proveedoras de contenido, ejerciendo el rol de editor en su respectiva “comunidad”

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Publication
Spanish version of the ICIQ-Bowel questionnaire among colorectal cancer patients: construct and criterion validity: Comprehensive assessment of bowel function
(2023) Sacomori, Cinara; Lorca, Luz Alejandra; Martínez-Mardones, Mónica; Pizarro-Hinojosa, Marta Natalia; Rebolledo-Díaz, Gonzalo Sebastián; Vivallos-González, Jessica Andrea
Purpose: Bowel complaints are very common among patients with colorectal cancer. However, the most used questionnaires for colorectal cancer survivors do not comprehensively comprise bowel symptoms. This study aimed to examine construct and criterion validity, as well as internal consistency, of the Chilean Version of the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Bowel Module (ICIQ-B) among people with colorectal cancer. Methods: Cross-sectional, validation study performed with 106 colorectal cancer patients from Hospital del Salvador, Chile. Bowel function was assessed with the ICIQ-B. Construct validity was assessed with confirmatory factor analysis and hypothesis testing. Specific items of a quality-of-life questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-CR29) were used to correlate with similar ICIQ-B items for criterion validity. For internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha was computed. Results: For construct validity, the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the three factors model did not fit our data. Meanwhile, hypothesis testing favored the construct validity of the instrument, considering that rectal cancer patients showed worse bowel pattern (p = 0.001), bowel control (p = 0.001) and quality of life (p < 0.001) scores compared to colon cancer patients. In addition, those patients assessed before surgery also presented worse scores bowel control (p = 0.023) and quality of life (p = 0.009) compared to post-surgical patients. Regarding criterion validity, the ICIQ-B items showed a significant correlation with similar QLQ-CR29 items. The internal reliability of the instrument was good (Cronbach's α = 0.909). Conclusion: Considering that this questionnaire appraises bowel function in more depth, it is recommended for use in clinical practice and research with colorectal cancer patients.
Publication
Skeletal Muscle Atrophy Induced by Diabetes Is Mediated by Non-Selective Channels and Prevented by Boldine
(2023) Cea, Luis A.; Vásquez, Walter; Hernández-Salinas, Romina; Vielma Z., Alejandra; Castillo-Ruiz, Mario; Velarde, Victoria; Salgado, Magdiel; Sáez, Juan C.
Individuals with diabetes mellitus present a skeletal muscle myopathy characterized by atrophy. However, the mechanism underlying this muscular alteration remains elusive, which makes it difficult to design a rational treatment that could avoid the negative consequences in muscles due to diabetes. In the present work, the atrophy of skeletal myofibers from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was prevented with boldine, suggesting that non-selective channels inhibited by this alkaloid are involved in this process, as has previously shown for other muscular pathologies. Accordingly, we found a relevant increase in sarcolemma permeability of skeletal myofibers of diabetic animals in vivo and in vitro due to de novo expression of functional connexin hemichannels (Cx HCs) containing connexins (Cxs) 39, 43, and 45. These cells also expressed P2X7 receptors, and their inhibition in vitro drastically reduced sarcolemma permeability, suggesting their participation in the activation of Cx HCs. Notably, sarcolemma permeability of skeletal myofibers was prevented by boldine treatment that blocks Cx43 and Cx45 HCs, and now we demonstrated that it also blocks P2X7 receptors. In addition, the skeletal muscle alterations described above were not observed in diabetic mice with myofibers deficient in Cx43/Cx45 expression. Moreover, murine myofibers cultured for 24 h in high glucose presented a drastic increase in sarcolemma permeability and levels of NLRP3, a molecular member of the inflammasome, a response that was also prevented by boldine, suggesting that, in addition to the systemic inflammatory response found in diabetes, high glucose can promote the expression of functional Cx HCs and activation of the inflammasome in skeletal myofibers. Therefore, Cx43 and Cx45 HCs play a critical role in myofiber degeneration, and boldine could be considered a potential therapeutic agent to treat muscular complications due to diabetes.
Publication
Priorities and Progress in Gram-positive Bacterial Infection Research by the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group: A Narrative Review
(2023) Doernberg, Sarah; Arias, Cesar; Altman, Deena; Babiker, Ahmed; Boucher, Helen; Creech, C Buddy; Cosgrove, Sara; Evans, Scott; Fowler, Vance; Fritz, Stephanie; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Kelly, Brendan; Leal, Sixto; Liu, Catherine; Lodise, Thomas; Miller, Loren; Munita, Jose M.; Murray, Barbara; Pettigrew, Melinda; Ruffin, Felicia; Scheetz, Marc; Shopsin, Bo; Tran, Truc; Turne, Nicholas; Williams, Derek; Zaharoff, Smitha; Holland, Thomas; Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group
The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) has prioritized infections caused by gram-positive bacteria as one of its core areas of emphasis. The ARLG Gram-positive Committee has focused on studies responding to 3 main identified research priorities: (1) investigation of strategies or therapies for infections predominantly caused by gram-positive bacteria, (2) evaluation of the efficacy of novel agents for infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and (3) optimization of dosing and duration of antimicrobial agents for gram-positive infections. Herein, we summarize ARLG accomplishments in gram-positive bacterial infection research, including studies aiming to (1) inform optimal vancomycin dosing, (2) determine the role of dalbavancin in MRSA bloodstream infection, (3) characterize enterococcal bloodstream infections, (4) demonstrate the benefits of short-course therapy for pediatric community-acquired pneumonia, (5) develop quality of life measures for use in clinical trials, and (6) advance understanding of the microbiome. Future studies will incorporate innovative methodologies with a focus on interventional clinical trials that have the potential to change clinical practice for difficult-to-treat infections, such as MRSA bloodstream infections.
Publication
Modelo de escenarios de simulación para el entrenamiento de razonamiento clínico en estudiantes de medicina
(2023) Armijo-Rivera, Soledad; Labarca, Cristian; Pérez Villalobos, Cristian; Behrens Pérez, Claudia; Tamburrino Díaz, Catalina; Castro Pérez, Javiera; Díaz Guío, Andrés
Introducción: El razonamiento clínico es una tarea compleja que los médicos utilizan al momento de enfrentarse a los pacientes. Se puede llevar a cabo a través del sistema intuitivo y el analítico. La simulación clínica es una herramienta para entrenar el razonamiento clínico, sin embargo, su evaluación sigue siendo un desafío. En el presente estudio, se evaluó el formato de diseño de escenarios para razonamiento clínico, asociado al uso de una pauta de observación aplicada en estudiantes de medicina en dos escenarios de simulación secuenciales. Material y Métodos: Se diseñaron dos escenarios de simulación con 4 niveles de complejidad para el manejo de sepsis en paciente adulto, donde participaron 12 grupos de 8 estudiantes. Estas simulaciones fueron grabadas y posteriormente analizadas por observadores calificados a través de una pauta de observación de escenario basada en las propuestas conceptuales de Croskerry, Braun y Pennaforte. Resultados: Los escenarios se llevaron a cabo en un promedio de 12 minutos. La mayoría logró establecer el diagnóstico e instauración de manejo inicial a través de la recogida parcial de información, dando cuenta del dominio del razonamiento intuitivo en el 98 % de los casos, sin embargo, solo el 10,4 % utilizó el sistema analítico. Conclusión: El diseño de escenarios de simulación compuestos de distintos niveles de complejidad podría promover el desarrollo del razonamiento clínico. La utilización de una pauta de observación del escenario permitió el análisis del proceso del razonamiento clínico en un entorno realista y sin interrupciones, y podría ser utilizada para guiar el debriefing.
Publication
Simulación remota: Un estudio cualitativo sobre razonamiento clínico y errores cognitivos desde la perspectiva de los estudiantes
(2023) Mir Bezanilla, Verónica; González-Bernstein, Antonia; Luer, Maria Ignacia; López-Leiva, Rosario; Díaz Schmidt, Joaquín Andrés; Armijo-Rivera, Soledad; Pérez-Villalobos, Cristhian
Introduction: Clinical reasoning is a crucial competency for medical practice and also a complex theory that is susceptible to cognitive errors. It is usually taught with clinical cases, in clinical settings, without technologies and in a practical manner rather than from a conceptual perspective. Given the need to improve its teaching in the undergraduate medical curriculum during the pandemic, we hypothesized that medical students participating in an online simulation and reflective practice course could benefit from a practical and theoretical approach to the clinical reasoning process. Material and Methods: A four-week online course, based on synchronous and asynchronous online simulation and reflective practice, was developed to promote metacognition among participants. The course was delivered to 8 sixth-year medical students as an elective module. A questionnaire consisting of four open-ended questions was designed to explore knowledge about clinical reasoning and cognitive errors, and was administered at the beginning and end of the course. A qualitative analysis of the responses was carried out using Berelson's content analysis method. Results: At the end of the course, students changed their understanding of the concept of clinical reasoning, considering it more as a process and identifying the dual nature described in one of the theories of clinical decision making. They also changed their knowledge of cognitive errors, attributing them not only to lack of knowledge, and understanding that they can actively use some strategies to reduce cognitive biases. Discussion: This study confirms that undergraduate students positively change their concept of clinical reasoning and their knowledge about this cognitive process and the cognitive errors that occur in it after a course that includes online simulation and reflection
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Plataforma de capacitación y orientación tutores clínicos
(Universidad del Desarrollo. Centro de Innovación Docente, 2021) Marco Calfunao, Glenda; Martínez Contreras, Valentina; Pérez, Ximena
Este proyecto propone desarrollar una plataforma de capacitación y fidelización para los tutores clínicos de Enfermería, con el objetivo de asegurar un modelo a seguir para los estudiantes.
Publication
Relación entre rendimiento académico, antecedentes socioacadémicos y percepción de estudiantes en la utilización de flipped learning en educación universitaria
(2023) Freire Azzarelli, Sylvana; Vélez Rivera, Rocío; QUINTILIANO SCARPELLI DOURADO, DAIANA; Muñoz-Alvarez, Diana
Este estudio se centró en la búsqueda de la posible relación entre rendimiento académico, antecedentes socioacadémicos y percepción de las y los estudiantes que utilizaron la estrategia pedagógica Flipped Learning (FL) en distintas cohortes durante cinco años, en una asignatura del área de la salud, con el fin de identificar los reales beneficios del FL en educación universitaria. En este estudio, de tipo longitudinal, participaron 385 estudiantes, y 77,7% tuvo experiencia con FL. Se observó que estudiantes con mayor nota de enseñanza media y con beneficios arancelarios, obtuvieron un mayor índice de aprobación, mientras que estudiantes de escuelas privadas presentaron una mayor reprobación en la asignatura. Además, se observó una asociación directa entre percepción positiva y aprobación en los cursos superiores, no así en cursos de primer año en los que el uso de FL no tuvo los efectos esperados. Tras comparar el rendimiento, antecedentes académicos, condiciones socioeconómicas y percepción de estudiantes, fue posible concluir que el uso de FL es exitoso para estudiantes de cursos superiores, pero no para estudiantes de cursos iniciales. Esto invita a la reflexión frente a la importancia del contexto en la aplicación de innovaciones pedagógicas, así como de la investigación en educación universitaria.
Publication
Polycaprolactone-based scaffolds for guided tissue regeneration in periodontal therapy: A systematic review
(2023) Antunovic, Florencia; Tolosa, Felipe; Klein, Katherine; Ocaranza, René
Background:Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a highly recognized synthetic polymer for its biocompatibility, ease of fabrication and mechanical strength in bone tissue engineering. Its applications have extended broadly, including regeneration of oral and maxillofacial lost tissues. Its usefulness has brought attention of researchers to regenerate periodontal lost tissues, including alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum. The aim of this systematic review was to obtain an updated analysis of the contribution of PCL-based scaffolds in the alveolar bone regeneration process. Methods:This review adheres to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines for systematic reviews. A computerized search of the PubMed, EBSCO, Scielo and Web of Science databases was performed, restricting literature search to published studies in English or Spanish between January 2002 and March 2023. Database search returned 248 studies which were screened based on title, author names and publication dates. Results:Data from 17 studies were reviewed and tabulated. All studies combined PCL with other biomaterials (such as Alginate, hydroxyapatite, bioactive glass, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)), growth factors (BMP-2, rhCEMP1), and/or mesenchymal stromal cells (adipose-derived, bone marrow, periodontal ligament or gingiva mesenchymal stromal cells). PCL scaffolds showed higher cell viability and osteoinductive potential when combined with bioactive agents. Complementary, its degradation rates were affected by the addition or exposure to specific substances, such as: Dopamine, Cerium Oxide, PLGA and hydrogen peroxide. Conclusions:PCL is an effective biomaterial for alveolar bone regeneration in periodontally affected teeth. It could be part of a new generation of biomaterials with improved regenerative potential.
Publication
Return to face-to-face classrooms in higher education : students experiences in Chile, Venezuela, and Ecuador
(2023) Lobos, Karla; Cobo-Rendón, Rubia; Sáez, Fabiola; Mella, Javier; Cisternas, Nataly
Emergency remote teaching (ERE) triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic posed significant challenges to higher education institutions worldwide. Although it had several negative consequences, it also enabled advances in the integration of technology into the teaching and learning process. The purpose of this study was to examine and characterize the key elements of the process of returning to face-to-face courses. The study was based on a mixed quantitative and qualitative design. 631 students from Chile, Venezuela, and Colombia were surveyed about their experiences returning to face-to-face classes (in terms of virtual tools, their feelings, and their expectations for academic success). The survey also included questions about the lockdown caused by the pandemic, specifically regarding instructional and didactic design, participation in online sessions, and the role of faculty during the pandemic. Descriptive and correlative analyses were performed to examine relationships among variables. Qualitative data were analyzed within a hermeneutically-oriented framework. Our analyses show that virtual classrooms or learning management systems (LMS) continued to be used after the pandemic. However, their use is strongly associated with a more traditional approach to teaching; LMSs and virtual classrooms are primarily used as filing locations and for receiving and storing homework assignments and assessments. In terms of interaction, qualitative analyses have shown that relationships with faculty and between students are better in face-to-face classes and that there is not much difference in perceptions of collaborative work in online learning compared to face-to-face classes. Finally, students' expectations of academic success are low in the short term, while they are higher in the long term. Students also indicated that it is important to them that teachers take care about the didactic design of the course, including strategies that encourage interaction and participation in both synchronous and asynchronous sessions. In addition, students mentioned that teachers should incorporate strategies to promote academic motivation, self-regulation, and a safe environment. An important finding of this study is that students prefer a blended learning format when comparing online and face-to-face instruction. This article also provides recommendations for the new post-pandemic education scenario.
Publication
Preschool and school aggression: adaptation and validation of the preschool social behavior scale in Chile
(2023) Varela, Jorge; Mujica, Paula; Melipillan, Edmundo Roberto; Benavente, Mariavictoria; Villacura, Paula
Recognizing aggressive behavior at an early age is vital to identify problematic trajectories that may increase the risk of behavioral and social adaptation problems at school and during adolescence. This requires scales capable of measuring this behavior. In this study, the Scale of Preschool Social Behavior (psbs) - Teacher Form was validated using a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (cfa) in a national context. We used a sample of 538 children and 12 educators from 4 kindergartens and 5 public schools in Santiago, Chile. The results revealed two main factors: aggression and pro-social behavior, similar to the original scale. This study contributes to the early detection of physical and relational aggression in the preschool stage through the development of reliable measurements that guide prevention programs.