Envíos recientes

Reducing stigma toward people with serious mental illness through a virtual reality intervention: a randomized controlled trial
(2023) Rodríguez-Rivas, Matías E.; Cangas, Adolfo J.; Martín, Andrés; Romo, Javiera; Pérez, J. Carola; Valdebenito, Sara; Cariola, Laura; Onetto, Josefina; Hernández, Bárbara; Ceric Garrido, Francisco; CEA GONZÁLEZ, PABLO ANTONIO; Corrigan, Patrick
Background: Stigma toward people with serious mental illnesses (SMI), like schizophrenia, is a serious global public health challenge that limits the quality of life of those affected and poses a major barrier that keeps people from seeking professional help. There is an urgent need for novel, effective, and scalable interventions to decrease stigmatized perceptions of chronic psychotic disorders and to reduce the health burden imposed by them. Method: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of a new immersive virtual reality game (Inclúyete-VR) on the level of stigma toward people with SMI, measured by the AQ-27 Attribution Questionnaire. Participants in the experimental group were exposed in an immersive way to hallucinations common in schizophrenia, then shown different psychosocial resources available for their recovery and social inclusion; those in the control group used VR software unrelated to mental health. VR sessions were delivered through Oculus headgear and lasted 25 minutes. Results: We randomly assigned 124 university students (55% female) to experimental or control conditions (n=62 each). We used mixed ANOVA to compare outcomes before and after the intervention between the two groups. We found a significant intervention-by-time interaction (p<0.001), with a reduction in the experimental group of overall stigma levels on the AQ-27 scale and its three subscales: dangerousness-fear, avoidance, and lack of solidarity (p<0.001 for all). Conclusions: The Inclúyete-VR software proved effective in the short term in reducing stigma toward people with severe mental illness. The program’s longer-term efficacy, scalability, and dissemination remain to be studied.
Análisis técnico sobre protecciones provisionales de borde para prevenir riesgos de caídas en trabajos en altura en la construcción: el caso de Chile
(2023) Valderrama-Ulloa, Claudia; Ferrada, Ximena; Serpell, Alfredo; Cabello, María José
El objetivo principal de este trabajo es presentar un análisis técnico de los distintos sistemas de protección de borde (barandas) y aportar al desarrollo de normativa sobre su uso en Chile. La metodología incluye una amplia revisión bibliográfica nacional e internacional para describir el contexto del uso de barandas. Se realiza un levantamiento de información en terreno para describir los principales problemas de uso de estos sistemas, tales como ritmo de avance del proyecto, singularidad de aspectos geométricos y arquitectónicos, requisitos estructurales y uso de soluciones artesanales. Se realizan 16 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a profesionales de la construcción y de empresas proveedoras nacionales para describir las distintas necesidades respecto a temas técnicos en el uso de barandas, destacándose aspectos como calidad de la información, trazabilidad, homologación y estandarización de productos. En conclusión, este estudio contribuye a especificar los criterios necesarios a aplicar en la industria de la construcción para promover el uso adecuado de protecciones de bordes para evitar caídas.
Review Breaking Down Barriers: Findings from a Literature Review on Housing for People with Disabilities in Latin America
(2023) Valderrama-Ulloa, Claudia; Ferrada, Ximena; Herrera, Felipe
Accessibility to housing is crucial for people with disabilities as it provides them with equal opportunities and allows them to live independently. A systematic literature review has been conducted to understand the current research on accessibility in housing for people with disabilities in Latin America. The study analysed 56 papers and used co-word analysis to identify common themes and topics within the documents. The results of the analysis showed that Brazil (61%) is the country with the most research on the subject, physical disability, at 36%, is the impairment most analysed, and interventions or analysis for the older people (45%) in their homes is the most researched type of population. The co-word analysis revealed that topics such as policy, regulations, the use of technologies, ergonomics interventions, and architectural criteria or barriers to the daily life of disabled people were frequently discussed in the papers. Although this work shows a substantial and growing increase in research on housing for people with disabilities in Latin America, it also demonstrates the importance of increasing research on other types of impairment, such as visual and cognitive-intellectual disabilities, and including children, caregivers, or even young adults.
A tool for universal accessibility assessment in the interior of dwellings
(2023) Valderrama-Ulloa, Claudia; Ferrada, Ximena; Rouault, Fabien
The present study proposes a tool for assessing universal accessibility in the interior of apartments, presenting a novel quantitative model for assessing the accessibility of buildings for buyers or tenants. For this, a multicriteria analysis for aggregating the assessment indicators with different units and scales is employed using a unique grade of accessibility according to four main pillars: Autonomy, Mobility, Comfort, and Safety. The assessment method has been applied in 35 show apartments in the urban area of Santiago in Chile. This work shows the application and results of 4 departments. The evaluation results are presented visually with a circular bar plot and a final grade in letter format from F to A. In general, it is observed that the four apartments proposed have a low degree of accessibility (letters F to D). And, the Autonomy pillar is clearly the lowest pillar in the selected apartments.