Artículos Psicología

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  • Publication
    Material Conditions and Their Relationship with Affective Components of Subjective Well-being in Children
    (2024) Ditzel, Ana Loreto; Chuecas, María Josefina; Benavente, María Victoria; Alfaro Inzunza, Jaime; Villarroel Gutiérrez, Alejandra
    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between material conditions, and affective components of subjective well-being in a representative sample, using data from the International Survey of Children’s Well-being (ISCWeB), of 1994 Chilean children in the 5th and 7th grades, with a mean age of 10.50 years (SD = 0.66) and 12.51 years (SD = 0.69), respectively. Descriptive statistical analyses were carried out, in addition to a regression analysis, considering age and gender variables. The main results showed that the majority of children report having material resources in the material conditions associated with basic needs and feeling happier to a greater extent. Regression analysis showed that children’s material conditions had a significant effect on positive and negative affect in both age groups. Children who reported greater access to material conditions had a higher mean positive affect. This effect was greater in the older group of children. In relation to gender, no significant differences were observed between girls and boys in the 10-yearold group, while in the 12-year-old group there were significant differences, both in positive and negative affect, with women reporting lower affective well-being. The results are discussed, which highlight the importance of considering the affective components of children’s subjective well-being when analyzing the material conditions in which they live and the differential effects according to age and gender.
  • Publication
    Covitality and life satisfaction: a multilevel analysis of bullying experiences and their relation with School attachment
    (2023) Varela, Jorge; De Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Guzmán, Paulina; Cuevas-Pavincich, Francisca; Benavente, Mariavictoria; Furlong, Michael; Alfaro Inzunza, Jaime
    Adolescent mental health research highlights the importance of individual strengths and well-being, which have been organized by different conceptual models. The covitality model is one example that proposes a meta-construct integrating different domains. Even though some prior research examines the relationship between covitality and bullying, there is a research gap regarding the specific mechanisms involved. In this study, we examined how school bullying may be asso ciated with covitality and life satisfaction and how this relationship may be mediated by school attachment. We used a multilevel analysis with 1,697 students (51% female, age: M=12.25, SD=2.11) from 62 classrooms in Chile. Our results show that at the individual level, victims of bullying report lower levels of well-being and covitality, which is explained by lower levels of school attachment. Bullying was also associated with higher levels of life satisfaction and covitality at the classroom level, and the relationship with covitality may also be partly explained by school attachment. These results underscore the importance of bullying prevention at the individual and the classroom level and the relevance of contextual variables in understanding its effects.
  • Publication
    Decision Making in Moral Judgment Context is Modulated by Individual Metacognition
    (2023) Osorio T., Hugo; Reyes M., Gabriel
    Metacognition refers to the human capacity to access and monitor one’s own mental states. Recent research suggests that this capacity expands to the social world, e.g., when individuals explicitly share their cognitive processes with others. Additionally, metacognition is also linked to cognitive flexibility, and the latter to ideologically radical behaviors. Indeed, the absence of control over one’s own mental activity could be at the base of different phenomena linked to social cognition. We investigate the metacognitive capacity of individuals in relation to the radicality with which they make a moral choice (utilitarian vs. deontological). For this purpose, 76 participants were submitted to 24 hypothetical situations, with the aim of evaluating the consistency (i.e., the radicality) of their moral choices. Then, in an independent experimental session, we evaluated the participants’ metacognitive efficiency.Wemanaged to demonstrate that individual metacognition scores are correlated with the radicality of a moral choice.Wediscussed the impact and relevance of metacognition in ecological contexts, particularly where subjective evaluation of the environment involves individual choices with social consequences.
  • Publication
    Transformación del sistema y experiencia docente en pandemia: análisis desde la teoría de la actividad
    (2024) Gonzalez Palacios, Micaela; Hojman, Viviana; Pérez, J. Carola; Valenzuela Ramírez, Pilar
    Las medidas de distanciamiento social implementadas durante la pandemia por covid-19 trasladaron la actividad educativa en Chile al formato virtual. Con el fin de explorar la experiencia docente en relación con la educación remota en contexto de pandemia, se realizó un estudio cualitativo basado en una epistemología dialéctica. Participaron cinco docentes de educación básica de un colegio particular subvencionado de una comuna semi rural de la Región Metropolitana de Chile. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas y se analizaron utilizando la Teoría de la Actividad Histórica-Cultural. Los resultados indican que, junto con la incorporación de nuevas herramientas tecnológicas en la mediación de aprendizajes, hubo tensiones asociadas con la incorporación de las familias al proceso, cambios en las reglas y límites del trabajo, y aislamiento en la comunidad escolar. Todo lo anterior influyó en una evaluación principalmente negativa de la experiencia por parte de las y los docentes entrevistados.
  • Publication
    Home language and literacy environments at the age of four:determinants and their relation to reading comprehensionup to age nine
    (2022) Mendive, Susana; Aldoney, Daniela; Mascareño, Mayra; Pezoa, José; Hoff, Erika
    This study determines (a) which factors of the parenting context, the child and their mothers are associated with environments that differ in their home literacy environment in a Chilean low-SES sample of 53-month-old children, and (b) whether reading comprehension at second and fourth grade is predicted by the socialization in the literacy environment. First, it found that the factors of maternal educational level and cognitions and the child’s task orientation and prosocial behaviour are related to the type of home literacy environment. Likewise, it found that the type of literacy environment predicts reading comprehension at age seven, with a major difference of one standard deviation between the two types of literacy environments. A similar distribution was found at age nine. This article discusses the implications of these results in informing early interventions in disadvantaged socioeconomic levels.
  • Publication
    Factors associated with victimization and perpetration of sexual aggression in Chilean university students
    (2023) Hernández-Romero, Hebe; Rincon, Paulina; López-Angulo, Yaranay; Cobo-Rendón, Rubia; Siprian Castro-Alzate, Elvis
    Introduction: Sexual aggression is a type of violence considered a public health problem that can affect people at any time of their lives. This investigation had three objectives: 1) to know the prevalence of victimization and perpetration of sexual aggression and its subtypes in the Chilean university context, 2) to identify the association of sex on the prevalence of victimization and perpetration of sexual aggression and its subtypes, and 3) to identify the association of alcohol consumption and victim-perpetrator relationship in the subtypes of victimization and perpetration of sexual aggression based on sex. Materials and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study, with a sample of 1728 students (65.3% women) with a median age of 22 years. Results: 42.6% and 8.3% of the students reported at least one incident of victimization and perpetration of sexual aggression respectively in the last 12 months; an association of sex with the victimization of sexual aggression χ2 (1, N = 1728) = 101,425, p < .001 and its subtypes was identified; no sex association was identified with the perpetration of sexual aggression, but with sexual coercion χ2 (1, N = 1728) = 5,122, p < .05. In the case of alcohol consumption and victim-perpetrator relationship, they were associated with some subtypes of victimization and perpetration of sexual aggression. Conclusion: the findings contribute to the estimation of the magnitude of sexual aggression and associated factors in the university context, which should be explored in depth in order to create preventive programs for victimization and perpetration of sexual aggression.
  • Publication
    Why theory of mind Is not enough to understand others?
    (2023) Sanhueza, María Isabel; Fossa, Pablo
    Theory of Mind (ToM), understood as the ability to intuit one’s own mental states and those of others, has been extensively researched in developmental psychology and cognitive psychology. The psychological literature shows a direct relationship between ToM and the (self) reflective capacity of consciousness, a product of the cognitive effort that implies the understanding of one’s own subjectivity and that of others. In this sense, ToM has received a strong cognitive influence, subdimensioning other dimensions involved in the intersubjective process of mutual understanding. Based on the theory of pre-reflective consciousness and the theory of intuition in phenomenology, we propose in this paper that the process of understanding one’s own mental states and the mental states of others constitutes, mainly, a pre-reflective and intuitive experience, and that it is only possible to move on to reflection at a later time. In short, with contributions from the theory of pre-reflective consciousness and phenomenological intuition, the aim is to complement the theoretical bases of ToM in psychology; a theory that, without incorporating elements of phenomenology, remains incomplete.
  • Publication
    What research is important today in human development, learning and education? JSED Editors’ reflections and research calls
    (2023) Bautista, Alfredo; Cerdán, Raquel; García-Carrión, Rocío; Salsa, Analía M.; Aldoney, Daniela; Cabedo-Mas, Alberto; Campos, Ruth; Clarà, Marc; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Ilari, Beatriz; Kammerer, Yvonne; Macedo-Rouet, Mônica; Mendive, Susana; Múñez, David; Saux, Gastón I.; Sun, He; Sun, Jin; Ventura, Ana Clara; Yang, Weipeng; Khalfaoui, Andrea; Noguera,, Ivana R.; Máñez, Ignacio; Yeung, Jerry
    ‘In your opinion, what are some important research questions, problems or challenges that scholars in your field of specialization should address in the coming years? What types of studies should be conducted to move your field further? Please justify’. This prompt was posed by the incoming Editor of JSED to the new team of Deputy and Associate Editors in the journal’s three thematic areas (human development, learning and education), who were invited to co-author this Editorial. We briefly describe the history of JSED, present the composition of its new Editorial Board, highlight modifications recently introduced in our aims and scope and inform readers about our vision, goals and strategies for the upcoming years. The next section presents the Editors’ individual responses to the above-mentioned prompt, in the spirit of sharing perspectives with our scientific community. Finally, we identify common topics that emerged within the three thematic areas and encourage authors to send us high-quality manuscripts that fill the identified research gaps. JSED aims to foster a paradigm of ‘glocalization’ in development, learning and education research.
  • Publication
    Wellbeing, social media addiction and coping strategies among Chilean adolescents during the pandemic
    (2023) Varela, Jorge; Pérez, J. Carola; Rodríguez-Rivas, Matías E.; Chuecas, María Josefina; Romo Neira, Javiera
    Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents had to deal with a range of mental health problems that has increased social media addiction levels with adverse effects on life satisfaction. Previous studies have explored coping mechanisms to deal with this addiction problem, but did not consider the need to simultaneously cope with different dimensions. Therefore, our study aimed to examine the moderating effect of various coping mechanisms on the relationship between social media addiction and adolescent life satisfaction. Methods: Self-report questionnaires were applied to 1290 secondary school students (age mean = 16.03, SD = 1.27, range: 14 to 19; and 57% female). An exploratory and a confirmatory factor analysis were performed to determine the factor structure of the Brief-Cope 28 scale. Then, a descriptive and correlational analysis of the variables and a multiple linear regression analysis was performed. Results: We found that the social media addiction risk was negatively associated with life satisfaction, adaptive strategies were positively correlated to life satisfaction, and maladaptive strategies were negatively correlated to it. Also, a moderation model was evaluated in which four stress management strategies, namely acceptance and perspective-taking, seeking socio-emotional support, active coping, and maladaptive strategies all conditioned the relationship between social media addiction risk and life satisfaction after controlling for demographic variables and the specific strategies of using comedy, religion and substance use. Results indicate additive and multiplicative effects of management strategies for stressful situations in the studied relationship. Seeking socio-emotional support and active coping were positively related to life satisfaction and maladaptive strategies were negatively associated with it. Multiplicative effects indicate that the relationship between the social media addiction risk and life satisfaction depends only on the acceptance and perspective taking that adolescents report. When adolescents reported having low or average levels of acceptance and perspective taking, there was a negative correlation with general life satisfaction, a connection that grew markedly stronger. In contrast, no connection between social media addiction and life satisfaction was detected for adolescents who report higher levels of acceptance and perspective-taking. Discussion: Abuse of social media and the use of maladaptive stress coping strategies were risk factors that decreased life satisfaction among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic period.
  • Publication
    Understanding the use/non-use of an internet-based intervention complementing standard depression treatment: A qualitative study of user's experiences
    (2023) Fernández, Olga; Pérez, J. Carola; Fernández, Sofía; Krause, Mariane; Cáceres, Cristián; Espinosa-Duque, Daniel
    Introduction: There is sufficient evidence about the effectiveness of internet-based interventions; however, the users’ level of adoption and utilization remains low, with this phenomenon requiring adequate explanation. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the users’ perceptions and experience of a web-based program (ASCENSO), designed to complement (usual) in-person depression treatment. Method: Twelve participants of the ASCENSO program, comprised of adult individuals (M = 44.3, SD = 13.4) of both genders (67% women) undergoing treatment for depression, were interviewed through semistructured interviews. The data obtained from these interviews were analyzed utilizing a constructivist grounded theory approach. The interviews were tran scribed and analyzed by trained coders. A constant comparative analysis of emergent themes was conducted. Results: These show that users employ and appreciate the program when their interaction with it emulates a “humanized relationship,” that is, when the program is proactive in assisting users with their requests and when it responds in a pertinent and individualized manner to their emotional states and needs. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the challenges associated with the development of algorithms capable of attracting different potential users. These should be designed to generate a virtual relationship that emulates human interaction and targets the characteristics of each user, for example, considering the specific phenomenology of their health condition, their present emotional states, and perceived needs. Elements that will vary as mental symptomatology evolve.
  • Publication
    Trajectories of parental daily stress: an ecological momentary assessment study during the COVID-19 lockdown
    (2023) Aldoney, Daniela; Coo, Soledad; Pérez Ewert, Janet Carola; Muñoz-Najar Pacheco, Andrés Omar; Montemurro Garcia, Manuel Fernelly; Tapia Aróstica, Leonel; Silva, Jaime; Gonzalez-Mathiesen, Constanza; Silva, Luz María; Gana Gajardo, Sofia; Panesso, Carolina
    The COVID-19 pandemic was a source of significant stress due to health and safety concerns and measures to control the virus’ spread, such as mobility restrictions. This measure was especially demanding for parents with school aged children, who had to find new work–family balance as their children participate in online education while attempting to work remotely. To evaluate parents’ stress trajectories during the pandemic, we conducted Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMAs) during lockdown for 29 days in 68 families in Santiago, Chile. In addition, we evaluated the role of educational level and income, co-parenting, and number of children in parents’ stress trajectories. Our results showed that during the first weeks of lockdown expected protective factors (i.e., incomeand co-parental support) were not able to influence parents’ daily stress management. Moreover, parents with higher educational levels reported worse stress adaptation than less educated parents. On the other hand, co-parental conflict was significantly associated with parent’s stress. Our study captured an acute response to COVID-19 related challenges. This study contributes to understanding how parents adjust to stress during adverse circumstances such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Publication
    The Psychological Science Accelerator's COVID-19 rapid-response dataset
    (2023) Buchanan, Erin M.; Lewis, Savannah C.; Paris, Bastien; Forscher, Patrick S.; Pavlacic, Jeffrey M.; Beshears, Julie E.; Drexler, Shira Meir; Gourdon-Kanhukamwe, Amélie; Mallik, Peter R.; Silan, Miguel Alejandro A.; Miller, Jeremy K.; IJzerman, Hans; Moshontz, Hannah; Beaudry, Jennifer L.; Suchow, Jordan W.; Chartier, Christopher R.; Coles, Nicholas A.; Sharifian, Mohammad Hasan; Todsen, Anna Louise; Levitan, Carmel A.; Azevedo, Flávio; Legate, Nicole; Heller, Blake; Rothman, Alexander J.; Dorison, Charles A.; Gill, Brian P.; Wang, Ke; Rees, Vaughan W.; Gibbs, Nancy; Goldenberg, Amit; Nguyen, Thuy-vy Thi; Gross, James J.; Kaminski, Gwenaêl; Bastian, Claudia C. von; Paruzel-Czachura, Mariola; Mosannenzadeh, Farnaz; Azouaghe, Soufian; Tejada Rivera, María del Carmen; Silva, Jaime; Olaya Torres, Adriana Julieth
  • Publication
    The inexhaustible experience of the inner voice: an answer to Marioka (2023), Fadeev (2023) and Machková (2023)
    (2023) Fossa, Pablo
    This article reflects on the analyzes and comments of Marioka (2023), Fadeev (2023) and Machková (2023) on the book New Perspectives on Inner Speech (Fossa, 2022a). First, I focus on responding and expanding the ideas presented by the authors, to later integrate the elements highlighted by them. By integrating the reflections and comments of the authors, it is evident that in inner speech there is an intersection between two continua. On the one hand, the control-lack of control continuum and, on the other hand, the diffuse-clear continuum. The level of clarity and control varies permanently during each act of internal speech, accounting for a phenomenon that advances from infinite interiority to infinite exteriority, and vice versa. This complex interaction of two continua - based on the level of control and the level of sharpness - defies empirical applications and demands methodological innovation in research centers interested in the Inexhaustible Experience of the Inner Voice.
  • Publication
    Teacher professional development, character education, and well-being: multicomponent intervention based on positive psychology
    (2023) García Alvarez, Diego; Soler, María José; Cobo-Rendón, Rubia; Hernández-Lalinde, Juan
    The COVID-19 educational crisis has generated both psychosocial risks and growth opportunities for teaching staff; these are challenges to be addressed from the perspective of sustainable development in SDG 3 Health and Well-being and SDG 4 Quality Education. During the pandemic, a character education training experience was carried out for principals and teacher coordinators, with the dual purpose of developing professional competencies for the application of positive psychology in educational centers and strengthening teacher well-being: specifically, dedication and enthusiasm in conjunction with personal resources such as self-efficacy and resilience. The multicomponent intervention based on positive psychology applied to education was carried out with a sample of 32 teaching coordinators and school principals (mean age 45.9 years; 93.75% female staff and 71.8% between 16 and 21 years of experience) from different departments in Uruguay. The results suggest that the intervention was effective, detecting higher scores in the post-test in self-efficacy (F = 18.17, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.40), resilience (F = 13.41, p = 0.001, η2 = 0.33), dedication and enthusiasm (F = 8.09, p = 0.008, η2 = 0.23), and teacher training (F = 8.36, p = 0.007, η2 = 0.24). It is concluded that the training program can provide an opportunity for improving teacher health and well-being, as well funcitoning as a device for promoting teacher professional development.
  • Publication
    Supervisión en una Unidad de Clínica de Adultos de un Centro de Salud Mental Universitario : un estudio cualitativo del proceso
    (2023) Pérez, J. Carola; Saralegui Fernández, Daniela
    Las supervisiones clínicas cumplen un rol esencial dentro de la formación profesional del psicólogo clínico. Se han desarrollado diferentes modelos de supervisión, sin embargo, pocos estudios abordan el cómo se desarrolla el proceso de supervisión propiamente tal. Objetivo: Describir las dinámicas de supervisión clínica grupal en la Unidad de Adultos del Servicio de Psicología Integral de una Clínica Universitaria, que proporciona atención psicológica a la comunidad. Metodología: Estudio cualitativo descriptivo y de alcance transversal, en una muestra de 5 sesiones de supervisión videograbadas, cuya interacción verbal fue sometida a análisis de contenido convencional. Resultados: Se distinguen aspectos de la apertura del proceso de supervisión, en el cual se identifica una dificultad variable de los supervisados para formular preguntas de supervisión, dificultad enmarcada en un contexto de involucramiento afectivo de los supervisados. Se identifican intervenciones de los miembros del equipo de supervisión: una transversal de validación de la experiencia del supervisado; e intervenciones durante el proceso de supervisión, como, por ejemplo, preguntas dirigidas a revisar “la experiencia” del supervisado durante la atención del caso; “construcción de hipótesis comprensivas del caso”, y la entrega de “sugerencias para el abordaje terapéutico” del caso en específico, y/o que pueden ser aplicados a otros casos.
  • Publication
    Students' learning perception in engineering, health and education during emergency remote education in Chile
    (2023) Villarroel, Veronica; González, Alvaro
    Higher education institutions around the world had to implement an emergency remote education (ERE) modality due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to determine the individual and relational factors that affect the perception of learning in engineering, education, and health students during emergency distance education. Through a quantitative, non-experimental, and correlational study, an online survey was administered to a sample of 929 higher education students regarding their ERE experience. They were surveyed regarding their perceived learning, empathy, classroom interaction, self-regulation of learning, positive agency, student engagement, learning approaches, and use of digital resources. Data was analyzed using quantitative methods, namely correlations, comparisons of means and a linear regression analysis. Education students showed a more positive perception of learning, used a deep learning approach, and rated more positively the empathy shown by their professors and the possibilities for class participation than other students. Engineering students had the lowest scores on perceived learning and on almost all other variables. In general, students with a better perception of learning presented a higher engagement in their studies and a lower use of surface learning approach.
  • Publication
    Desarrollo, antecedentes biológicos y características sociodemográficas en preescolares con y sin antecedentes de prematuridad
    (2023) Barra, Lisseth; Coo, Soledad
    El parto prematuro es la principal causa de mortalidad y morbilidad infantil en Chile. Sin embargo, existe poca información sobre las características particulares de los nacidos prematuros en etapa preescolar. Objetivo: Describir las características sociodemográficas, antecedentes biológicos y del desarrollo de los niños preescolares chilenos nacidos a término y pretérmino. Sujetos y Método: Análisis secundario de las bases de datos de la Encuesta Longitudinal de Primera Infancia (ELPI), año 2010. Se seleccionaron niños entre 2 y 4 años de edad con información sobre la edad gestacional al nacer. Se excluyeron los recién nacidos postérmino. La muestra incluyó a 8.571 niños, de los cuales el 9,78% eran prematuros. Se consideraron variables relacionadas con características sociodemográficas, factores de riesgo biológicos y desarrollo psicomotor. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo y de asociación (Chi-cuadrado) para establecer si las diferencias entre los grupos comparados eran significativas. Resultados: No se observaron diferencias en cuanto a la proporción de sexo, área geográfica de residencia y pronóstico de salud. La mayoría de los niños residían en el área metropolitana y central del país, y recibían atención en el sistema público de salud. Los prematuros residen, en mayor proporción, en áreas urbanas y tienen mayores factores de riesgo biológico. Además, los nacidos prematuros tienen puntajes promedio más bajos que los nacidos a término en todas las áreas de desarrollo. Conclusiones: La información presentada plantea la necesidad de analizar la interacción de la prematuridad. con el riesgo social en el desarrollo de los prematuros de diferentes edades gestacionales.
  • Publication
    School violence, school bonding and adherence to school norms and its Association with life satisfaction among chilean and foreign students
    (2024) Varela, Jorge; González, Constanza; Bravo‑Sanzana, Mónica; Melipillan, Roberto; Melipillan, Edmundo Roberto; Reyes-Reyes, Fernando; Reyes Reyes, Fernando Teddy; Pacheco Olmedo, Daniela
    In recent years, there has been an increasing recognition of the importance of understanding the educational experiences of immigrant students, particularly in diverse societies like Chile. Immigrant students often encounter unique challenges related to language, culture, and social integration, which can significantly impact their perceptions of school norms, school bonding, experiences of school violence, and overall well-being. However, there is a limited understanding of the specific differences between Chilean students and immigrant students in these domains. This study aims to bridge this gap by examining the differences between Chilean and immigrant students in their perception of school norms, levels of school bonding, experiences of school violence, and well-being. The study used a sample of 2,040 high school students residing in Chile from 20 schools (Mage = 14.9; 49% girls; 11.3% youths of immigrant origin). Results indicated that non-Chilean students exhibited higher levels of behavioral norms and lower levels of bonding. No statistically significant differences were observed for school violence and well-being. Implications for the development of educational policies that promote strategies for the development of a positive school climate are discussed, conceiving the school from the perspective of diverse and inclusive classrooms, which allow for the enrichment of culture and promote the well-being of the entire educational community.
  • Publication
    Safety perceptions of good treatment and subjective well-being in 10- and 12-year-old children in three countries
    (2023) González‑Carrasco, Mònica; Bedin, Lívia; Alfaro Inzunza, Jaime; Castellá Sarriera, Jorge
    Satisfaction with safety and satisfaction with how adults listen to children and how they take what they say into account are the most important satisfaction domains that contribute to children’s subjective well-being (SWB). However, there is still more to know about what contributes to both domains. Little is understood about their mediating effects on the safety perceptions of being cared for and supported in terms of children’s SWB. Age and country are also relevant variables in this equation that suffers from a lack of information. Therefore, this article attempts to shed light on these questions by using the third wave of the Children’s Worlds data set that covers Spain, Brazil, and Chile and focuses on the 10- and 12-year-old age group. Results show that perceived contexts (home, school, and neighborhood) in each country are very important for assessing satisfaction with personal safety, while having parents who listen and take children’s opinions into account is very important for SWB in all contexts. The importance of the effects of feeling safe on SWB increases from late childhood to early adolescence, with its indirect effects being much more important than direct effects. Most children do not perceive to be listened to by teachers or do not perceive that what they say is taken into account by their teachers, which does not turn out to be very relevant for SWB in any of the three countries. Despite existing relationships between all of the variables analyzed, there are differences depending on the country and age group, with a common relationship observed between some of them.
  • Publication
    Return to face-to-face classrooms in higher education : students experiences in Chile, Venezuela, and Ecuador
    (2023) Lobos, Karla; Cobo-Rendón, Rubia; Sáez, Fabiola; Mella, Javier; Cisternas, Nataly
    Emergency remote teaching (ERE) triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic posed significant challenges to higher education institutions worldwide. Although it had several negative consequences, it also enabled advances in the integration of technology into the teaching and learning process. The purpose of this study was to examine and characterize the key elements of the process of returning to face-to-face courses. The study was based on a mixed quantitative and qualitative design. 631 students from Chile, Venezuela, and Colombia were surveyed about their experiences returning to face-to-face classes (in terms of virtual tools, their feelings, and their expectations for academic success). The survey also included questions about the lockdown caused by the pandemic, specifically regarding instructional and didactic design, participation in online sessions, and the role of faculty during the pandemic. Descriptive and correlative analyses were performed to examine relationships among variables. Qualitative data were analyzed within a hermeneutically-oriented framework. Our analyses show that virtual classrooms or learning management systems (LMS) continued to be used after the pandemic. However, their use is strongly associated with a more traditional approach to teaching; LMSs and virtual classrooms are primarily used as filing locations and for receiving and storing homework assignments and assessments. In terms of interaction, qualitative analyses have shown that relationships with faculty and between students are better in face-to-face classes and that there is not much difference in perceptions of collaborative work in online learning compared to face-to-face classes. Finally, students' expectations of academic success are low in the short term, while they are higher in the long term. Students also indicated that it is important to them that teachers take care about the didactic design of the course, including strategies that encourage interaction and participation in both synchronous and asynchronous sessions. In addition, students mentioned that teachers should incorporate strategies to promote academic motivation, self-regulation, and a safe environment. An important finding of this study is that students prefer a blended learning format when comparing online and face-to-face instruction. This article also provides recommendations for the new post-pandemic education scenario.