Artículos Psicología

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  • Publicación
    The impact of a university teacher training program promoting self-regulated learning on teacher knowledge, self-efficacy, and practices
    (2023) Bruna, Daniela; Pérez, María Victoria; Bustos, Claudio; Villarroel Verónica
    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a teaching training program on teachers’ knowledge, self-efficacy, and teaching practices. A 21-h program was developed to enhance self-regulated learning in higher education students, focusing on planning, teaching, and assessment practices. The research design employed a quasi-experimental approach, utilizing pre- and post-tests with an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group consisted of 32 teachers, while the control group comprised 28 teachers. The results obtained from a Linear Multi-level Model analysis revealed the following findings: (1) the training program did not have a significant impact on the participants’ knowledge; (2) there was a significant positive effect on overall teacher self-efficacy, with the Health Sciences and Psychology faculties demonstrating higher levels of selfefficacy compared to other faculties; and (3) the training program significantly improved teaching practices for the promotion of self-regulated learning, with no significant differences observed between faculties.
  • Publicación
    Reducing stigma toward people with serious mental illness through a virtual reality intervention: a randomized controlled trial
    (2023) Rodríguez-Rivas, Matías E.; Cangas, Adolfo J.; Martín, Andrés; Romo, Javiera; Pérez, J. Carola; Valdebenito, Sara; Cariola, Laura; Onetto, Josefina; Hernández, Bárbara; Ceric Garrido, Francisco; CEA GONZÁLEZ, PABLO ANTONIO; Corrigan, Patrick
    Background: Stigma toward people with serious mental illnesses (SMI), like schizophrenia, is a serious global public health challenge that limits the quality of life of those affected and poses a major barrier that keeps people from seeking professional help. There is an urgent need for novel, effective, and scalable interventions to decrease stigmatized perceptions of chronic psychotic disorders and to reduce the health burden imposed by them. Method: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of a new immersive virtual reality game (Inclúyete-VR) on the level of stigma toward people with SMI, measured by the AQ-27 Attribution Questionnaire. Participants in the experimental group were exposed in an immersive way to hallucinations common in schizophrenia, then shown different psychosocial resources available for their recovery and social inclusion; those in the control group used VR software unrelated to mental health. VR sessions were delivered through Oculus headgear and lasted 25 minutes. Results: We randomly assigned 124 university students (55% female) to experimental or control conditions (n=62 each). We used mixed ANOVA to compare outcomes before and after the intervention between the two groups. We found a significant intervention-by-time interaction (p<0.001), with a reduction in the experimental group of overall stigma levels on the AQ-27 scale and its three subscales: dangerousness-fear, avoidance, and lack of solidarity (p<0.001 for all). Conclusions: The Inclúyete-VR software proved effective in the short term in reducing stigma toward people with severe mental illness. The program’s longer-term efficacy, scalability, and dissemination remain to be studied.
  • Publicación
    Measuring school social climate in Latin America: the need for multidimensional and multi-informant tests – A systematic review
    (2023) Bravo-Sanzana, Mónica V.; Varela, Jorge; Oscar Terán-Mendoza, Oscar; Rodríguez-Rivas, Matías E.
    Introduction: School social climate is central to understanding learning experiences in education environments. Previous studies describe various conceptual and operational definitions around the construct; however, there are no records of reviews focused on Latin America. Aim: This study sought to analyze the available evidence and the quality of school social climate measures in Latin America through a systematic review of the literature based on the PRISMA methodology and the COSMIN checklist to assess the psychometric properties of the instruments. Methodology: The Web of Science, Scopus, Psycinfo, and SciELO databases were consulted. A total of 582 records was identified, of which 27 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and methodological quality to be included in the systematization. Results: The results show that the country with the greatest scientific production on the topic is Chile, the measures are centered mainly on the students’ perspective and the most used instrument is the CECSCE. In addition, a common aspect to all the records is that they were not sufficient to capture the complexity of school social climate. Conclusion: Multidimensional and multi-informant measures are needed to adequately assess the construct.
  • Publicación
    Pregnancy-Specific Stress during the First Lockdown of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Assessing Face-to-Face versus Online Recruitment
    (2022) Simó, Sandra; Cajiaó, Juanita; Awad Sirhan, Natalia; Caparros-González, Rafael
    The study aims to assess pregnancy-specific stress among pregnant women in Spain during the first lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic. Two samples of pregnant women from the south of Spain (Andalusia) were assessed using the Prenatal Distress Questionnaire (PDQ) and a sociodemographic and obstetric questionnaire. Group 1 (N = 155) was recruited face-to-face, whereas Group 2 (N = 78) was recruited online. Pregnancy-specific stress levels were significantly different in both groups. The face-to-face group (Group 1) had higher pregnancy-specific stress levels than the online group (Group 2). The online sample over-represents young adult pregnant women with high education levels and a high number of previous miscarriages. The face-to-face study seems more accessible to racially and ethnically diverse groups. The main concern among both groups was the risk of having a sick neonate. Research during the COVID-19 pandemic can benefit from using online resources to collect data to screen and identify perinatal mental health problems in a crisis environment. Nevertheless, researchers should be aware of the potential limitations this strategy can have, for example, certain groups of people may have limited access to the internet