Artículos Ingeniería

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  • Publicación
    Análisis técnico sobre protecciones provisionales de borde para prevenir riesgos de caídas en trabajos en altura en la construcción: el caso de Chile
    (2023) Valderrama-Ulloa, Claudia; Ferrada, Ximena; Serpell, Alfredo; Cabello, María José
    El objetivo principal de este trabajo es presentar un análisis técnico de los distintos sistemas de protección de borde (barandas) y aportar al desarrollo de normativa sobre su uso en Chile. La metodología incluye una amplia revisión bibliográfica nacional e internacional para describir el contexto del uso de barandas. Se realiza un levantamiento de información en terreno para describir los principales problemas de uso de estos sistemas, tales como ritmo de avance del proyecto, singularidad de aspectos geométricos y arquitectónicos, requisitos estructurales y uso de soluciones artesanales. Se realizan 16 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a profesionales de la construcción y de empresas proveedoras nacionales para describir las distintas necesidades respecto a temas técnicos en el uso de barandas, destacándose aspectos como calidad de la información, trazabilidad, homologación y estandarización de productos. En conclusión, este estudio contribuye a especificar los criterios necesarios a aplicar en la industria de la construcción para promover el uso adecuado de protecciones de bordes para evitar caídas.
  • Publicación
    Review Breaking Down Barriers: Findings from a Literature Review on Housing for People with Disabilities in Latin America
    (2023) Valderrama-Ulloa, Claudia; Ferrada, Ximena; Herrera, Felipe
    Accessibility to housing is crucial for people with disabilities as it provides them with equal opportunities and allows them to live independently. A systematic literature review has been conducted to understand the current research on accessibility in housing for people with disabilities in Latin America. The study analysed 56 papers and used co-word analysis to identify common themes and topics within the documents. The results of the analysis showed that Brazil (61%) is the country with the most research on the subject, physical disability, at 36%, is the impairment most analysed, and interventions or analysis for the older people (45%) in their homes is the most researched type of population. The co-word analysis revealed that topics such as policy, regulations, the use of technologies, ergonomics interventions, and architectural criteria or barriers to the daily life of disabled people were frequently discussed in the papers. Although this work shows a substantial and growing increase in research on housing for people with disabilities in Latin America, it also demonstrates the importance of increasing research on other types of impairment, such as visual and cognitive-intellectual disabilities, and including children, caregivers, or even young adults.
  • Publicación
    A tool for universal accessibility assessment in the interior of dwellings
    (2023) Valderrama-Ulloa, Claudia; Ferrada, Ximena; Rouault, Fabien
    The present study proposes a tool for assessing universal accessibility in the interior of apartments, presenting a novel quantitative model for assessing the accessibility of buildings for buyers or tenants. For this, a multicriteria analysis for aggregating the assessment indicators with different units and scales is employed using a unique grade of accessibility according to four main pillars: Autonomy, Mobility, Comfort, and Safety. The assessment method has been applied in 35 show apartments in the urban area of Santiago in Chile. This work shows the application and results of 4 departments. The evaluation results are presented visually with a circular bar plot and a final grade in letter format from F to A. In general, it is observed that the four apartments proposed have a low degree of accessibility (letters F to D). And, the Autonomy pillar is clearly the lowest pillar in the selected apartments.
  • Publicación
    A Robust Statistical Methodology for Measuring Enterprise Agility
    (2023) Moraga-Díaz, Roberto; Leiva-Araos, Andrés; García, José
    In an era characterized by rapid technological advancements, economic fluctuations, andglobal competition, adaptability and resilience have become critical success factors for businessesnavigating uncertainty and complexity. This article explores the role of enterprise agility in today’sbusiness landscape at Latam branch of Tata Consultancy Services, where organizations face complexand diverse operations. We aim to examine how companies can become more agile in the faceof emerging challenges and seize opportunities swiftly to drive growth and deliver value. Since2014, the division has embarked on an agile transformation journey to drive growth, deliver value,foster innovation, and build resilience in an increasingly dynamic environment. We scrutinizean approach to measuring and enhancing enterprise agility, employing statistical analysis andcontinuous improvement methodologies to tackle real-world challenges while offering valuableinsights and recommendations for organizations aiming to implement similar systems. The resultsof an agile transformation in a certain company’s Latam branch serve as a compelling case study,demonstrating how the implementation of targeted measures and continuous improvement cansignificantly bolster enterprise agility. Methodologically, our work applies a novel sequence ofparametric statistical tests which, to the best of our knowledge, have not been used in the industryto validate the results of business agility metrics. In future work, we aim to create a new workflowconsidering non-parametric tests to address data with other statistical distributions. We conclude ourwork by proposing a sequence of steps for organizations to implement business agility metrics
  • Publicación
    A data fusion approach with mobile phone data for updating travel survey-based mode split estimates
    (2023) Graells-Garrido, Eduardo; Opitz, Daniela; Rowe, Francisco; Arriagada, Jacqueline
    Up-to-date information on different modes of travel to monitor transport traffic and evaluate rapid urban transport planning interventions is often lacking. Transport systems typically rely on traditional data sources providing outdated mode-of-travel data due to their data latency, infrequent data collection and high cost. To address this issue, we propose a method that leverages mobile phone data as a cost-effective and rich source of geospatial information to capture current human mobility patterns at unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. Our approach employs mobile phone application usage traces to infer modes of transportation that are challenging to identify (bikes and ride-hailing/taxi services) based on mobile phone location data. Using data fusion and matrix factorisation techniques, we integrate official data sources (household surveys and census data) with mobile phone application usage data. This integration enables us to reconstruct the official data and create an updated dataset that incorporates insights from digital footprint data from application usage. We illustrate our method using a case study focused on Santiago, Chile successfully inferring four modes of transportation: mass-transit (all public transportation), motorised (cars and similar vehicles), active (pedestrian and cycle trips), and taxi (traditional taxi and ride-hailing services). Our analysis revealed significant changes in transportation patterns between 2012 and 2020. We quantify a reduction in mass-transit usage across municipalities in Santiago, except where metro/rail lines have been more recently introduced, highlighting added resilience to the public transport network of these infrastructure enhancements. Additionally, we evidence an overall increase in motorised transport throughout Santiago, revealing persistent challenges in promoting urban sustainable transportation. Findings also point to a rise in the share of taxi usage, and a drop in active mobility, suggesting a modal shift towards less sustainable modes of travel. We validate our findings comparing our updated estimates with official smart card transaction data. The consistency of findings with expert domain knowledge from the literature and historical transport usage trends further support the robustness of our approach.