Examinando Dirección de Investigación por Fecha de publicación
Mostrando1 - 20 de 3805
Resultados por página
Opciones de clasificación
- ÍtemWorld cultural heritage, territory and construction of citizenship. The social construction and appropriation of the world cultural heritage of Valparaíso city(01/01/2012) Guerrero Valdebenito, Rosa MaríaThe historic neighborhood to Valparaiso city was declared heritage of humanity in July 2nd 2003. Since then the city has achieved unusual social interest, so much so that this title seems to define a before and after in the status of the city and how the residents perceive and live it. This article describes the social construction and appropriation of the world heritage of this city, and the principal social effect about it. The article emphasizes the awakening of heritage organizations, which had put the heritage as a frame to express social rights and requirements, changing the organization outlook of Valparaiso society as a consequence.
- ÍtemEntrepreneurial opportunities in peripheral versus core regions in Chile(01/01/2013) Amorós, José Ernesto; Felzensztein, Christian; Gimmon, EliIn this article, we estimated the value of a statistical life and the value of a statistical injury (VSI) for Chilean workers using a combination of data from the year 2006 from the Chilean National Socio-Economic Survey, which provides workers’ characteristics, and annual statistics from the Chilean Safety Association, which provide labor accident risk data. We estimated a hedonic log-wage equation taking into account of selection bias and endogeneity. The estimated value of a statistical life was US$4,625,958, which increased by almost a factor three after correcting for endogeneity (US$12,826,520). On the other hand, the estimated VSI was US$30,840. The uncorrected results were lower than the values reported by other authors for various developed countries, but greater than those estimated using indirect approaches for Chile.
- ÍtemEuvoluntariness and just market exchange: moral dilemmas from Locke’s Venditio(01/01/2014) Guzmán, Ricardo Andrés; Munger, Michael C.It is a maxim of Public Choice that voluntary exchanges should not be interfered with by the state. But what makes a voluntary market exchange truly voluntary? We suggest, contra much of the economics literature, that voluntary exchange requires consent uncoerced by threats of harm, but that this is not sufficient. In particular, a person pressured to exchange by the dire consequences of failing to exchange—e.g., dying of thirst or hunger—is still coerced, and coerced exchange cannot be voluntary. The weaker party’s desperation gives the other party unconscionable bargaining power. We argue for a distinction, based on a neologism: in the case of coercion by circumstance but not by threat, exchange is still voluntary in the conventional sense, but it is not euvoluntary (i.e., truly voluntary). We will argue that all euvoluntary exchanges are just, while non-euvoluntary exchanges may or may not be unjust; that in competitive markets all exchanges are just, even those that are not euvoluntary, while in bilateral monopolies some exchanges are neither euvoluntary nor just. We will propose a mental device, the “fictitious negotiation”, to determine the just price in non-euvoluntary market exchanges. A primitive version of these ideas can be found in a little known monograph by John Locke, which we will analyze in detail
- ÍtemImporting Modernity: the Evolution of Economic Thinking in Chile During the Nineteenth Century(01/01/2015) Couyoumdjian, Juan PabloStudying the evolution of economic thought within a country allows us to trace the history of ideas in a given country and analyze the transfer of ideas across nations. This process is also important in terms of the development of national public policies. In this paper we study the evolution of economic ideas in Chile from the mid-19th century to the early 20th century through an examination of the teaching of political economy in the country. Specifically, we study textbooks in political economy published in Chile during this period, considering their structure and citations. Our analysis complements historical studies that suggest a decline of economic liberalism associated to the (French version of) classical political economy in Chile towards the end of the 19th century.
- ÍtemOxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms: Role in Social and Psychiatric Traits(01/01/2016) Aspe-Sánchez, Mauricio; Moreno, Macarena; Rivera, María Ignacia; Rossi, Alejandra; Ewer, JohnOxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are two phylogenetically conserved neuropeptides that have been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors. Although a large body of research, ranging from rodents to humans, has reported on the effects of OXT and AVP administration on affiliative and trust behaviors, and has highlighted the genetic contributions of OXT and AVP receptor polymorphisms to both social behaviors and to diseases related to social deficits, the consequences of peptide administration on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of receptor polymorphisms on receptor function, are still unclear. Despite the exciting advances that these reports have brought to social neuroscience, they remain preliminary and suffer from the problems that are inherent to monogenetic linkage and association studies. As an alternative, some studies are using polygenic approaches, and consider the contributions of other genes and pathways, including those involving DA, 5-HT, and reelin, in addition to OXT and AVP; a handful of report are also using genome-wide association studies. This review summarizes findings on the associations between OXT and AVP receptor polymorphism, social behavior, and psychiatric diseases. In addition, we discuss reports on the interactions of OXT and AVP receptor genes and genes involved in other pathways (such as those of dopamine, serotonin, and reelin), as well as research that has shed some light on the impact of gene polymorphisms on the volume, connectivity, and activation of specific neural structures, differential receptor expression, and plasma levels of the OXT and AVP peptides. We hope that this effort will be helpful for understanding the studies performed so far, and for encouraging the inclusion of other candidate genes not explored to date.
- ÍtemA nonlinear model for multilayered rubber isolators based on a co-rotational formulation(01/01/2017) Maureira, N.; Llera, J. de la; Oyarzo, C.; Miranda, S.This article proposes a geometrically nonlinear co-rotational model aimed to characterize the mechanical behavior of elastomeric seismic isolators. The model is able to capture the axial and lateral coupling in both axial directions, i.e. compression and tension of the isolator. Also reproduces the instability the loads in tension as well as in compression, and provides theoretical evidence of the non-symmetric behavior of the isolator in these two directions. To validate model results, a quasistatic analysis was performed on a typical isolator with many different shape factors. From the parametric analysis performed, it is observed that buckling loads are higher in tension than in compression. However, as the shape factor of the isolator increases, the behavior in compression and tension becomes symmetric. It becomes apparent that significant differences in normal stresses and strains under tensile and compressives loads are observed for axial loads smaller than 10% of the nominal buckling load. The example presented shows that lateral displacements of about 25% of isolator radius and tension forces up to 10% of the buckling load are possible without inducing cavitation in the rubber. Accuracy of the model was also tested against finite element model results and experimental data showing satisfactory results. Furthermore, a response-history analysis of an isolated structure is presented and compared for two isolator models: the two-spring model and the model proposed herein. Finally, material nonlinearity was introduced in the dynamic analysis using a Bouc-Wen type element in parallel with the isolator. The responses are similar between models; however, significant differences occur locally in the isolator for high axial loads and/or large lateral displacements. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- ÍtemIncome-related inequality in health and health care utilization in Chile, 2000-2009(01/02/2013) Vásquez Lavín, Felipe; Paraje, Guillermo; Estay, ManuelObjective. To measure and explain income-related inequalities in health and health care utilization in the period 2000–2009 in Chile, while assessing variations within the country and determinants of inequalities. Methods. Data from the National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey for 2000, 2003, and 2009 were used to measure inequality in health and health care utilization. Income-related inequality in health care utilization was assessed with standardized concentration indices for the probability and total number of visits to specialized care, generalized care, emergency care, dental care, mental health care, and hospital care. Self-assessed health status and physical limitations were used as proxies for health care need. Standardization was performed with demographic and need variables. The decomposition method was applied to estimate the contribution of each factor used to calculate the concentration index, including ethnicity, employment status, health insurance, and region of residence. Results. In Chile, people in lower-income quintiles report worse health status and more physical limitations than people in higher quintiles. In terms of health service utilization, prorich inequities were found for specialized and dental visits with a slight pro-rich utilization for general practitioners and all physician visits. All pro-rich inequities have decreased over time. Emergency room visits and hospitalizations are concentrated among lower-income quintiles and have increased over time. Higher education and private health insurance contribute to a pro-rich inequity in dentist, general practitioner, specialized, and all physician visits. Income contributes to a pro-rich inequity in specialized and dentist visits, whereas urban residence and economic activity contribute to a pro-poor inequity in emergency room visits. Conclusions. The pattern of health care utilization in Chile is consistent with policies implemented in the country and in the intended direction. The significant income inequality in the use of specialized and dental services, which favor the rich, deserves policy makers’ attention and further investigation related to the quality of these services.
- ÍtemInternal lean practices and performance: The role of technological turbulence(01/02/2015) Chavez, Roberto; Yu, Wantao; Jacobs, Mark; Fynes, Brian; Wiengarten, Frank; Lecuna, AntonioDrawing upon resource dependence theory, this study investigates the linkages from supplier partnership and customer relationship to internal lean practices. Furthermore, this study investigates the linkages from internal lean practices (ILP) to operational performance and organizational performance, and assesses the contingency perspective of these relationships with respect to technological turbulence. The study is based on a questionnaire sent to 228 manufacturing companies in the Republic of Ireland, and the relationships proposed analyzed with structural equation modeling and OLS regression. The results reveal the importance of supply chain relationships, in particular through supplier partnership and customer relationship, in that they are positively associated with ILP. Further, the study finds that ILP are positively associated with both operational and organizational performance. This study also adds to the understanding of the circumstances under which ILP impact performance in that technological turbulence was found to negatively moderate the linkages between ILP and operational performance and ILP and organizational performance. While lean practices can stimulate improved operational and organizational performance, this relationship is not monotonic and is timely to consider the rate of technological change at the time of implementing lean manufacturing.
- ÍtemIntrospective access to implicit shifts of attention(01/02/2017) Reyes, Gabriel; Sackur, JérômeLiterature in metacognition has systematically rejected the possibility of introspective access to complex cognitive processes. This situation derives from the difficulty of experimentally manipulating cognitive processes while abiding by the two contradictory constraints. First, participants must not be aware of the experimental manipulation, otherwise they run the risk of incorporating their knowledge of the experimental manipulation in some rational elaboration. Second, we need an external, third person perspective evidence that the experimental manipulation did impact some relevant cognitive processes. Here, we study introspection during visual searches, and we try to overcome the above dilemma, by presenting a barely visible, “pre-conscious” cue just before the search array. We aim at influencing the attentional guidance of the search processes, while participants would not notice that fact. Results show that introspection of the complexity of a search process is driven in part by subjective access to its attentional guidance.
- ÍtemSurfeiting, the appetite may sicken: entrepreneurship and happiness(01/03/2014) Naudé, Wim; Amorós, José Ernesto; Cristi, OscarDo the presence and nature of entrepreneurship impact on national happiness, and are nations with happy citizens better for entrepreneurs to start new businesses? To provide tentative answers we survey the literature on entrepreneurship and subjective well-being and use various data sources to uncover the first evidence of the relationship between entrepreneurship and happiness at the country level. We find that opportunitymotivated entrepreneurship may contribute to a nation’s happiness but only to a certain point, at which the effects of happiness begin to decline. Moreover, our results suggest that a nation’s happiness affects earlystage opportunity-driven entrepreneurial activity.
- ÍtemGEM research: achievements and challenges(01/03/2014) Alvarez, Claudia; Urbano, David; Amorós, José ErnestoThis article analyzes the content and evolution of research based on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) project. We conducted a rigorous search of articles published in journals within the Thomson Reuters’ Social Sciences Citation Index® through an exploratory analysis focused on articles using GEM data. The main findings of this study reveal that the institutional approach is the most commonly used conceptual framework. Also, although there are still few academic publications using GEM data, the number of articles is increasing, as are opportunities for future research.
- ÍtemSustainable Entrepreneurship Research: Taking stock and looking ahead(01/03/2018) Muñoz, Pablo; Cohen, BoydThe recognition of entrepreneurship as a solution to, rather than a cause of, environmental degradation and social inequality moved the field to identify a new type of entrepreneurial activity, namely sustainable entrepreneurship. Scholarly interest has spiked in recent years; however, aside from its aspirational appeal, there remains a lack of understanding of the nature of the phenomenon and the future of sustainable entrepreneurship in theory and practice. This review seeks to provide a conceptual basis for stimulating scholarly thought and improving our collective understanding of sustainable entrepreneurship as a distinct subdomain within entrepreneurship research. Based on boundary definition and delineation of main features, this review critically discusses the main challenges ahead and elaborates on the research implications and future research directions beyond current, dominant approaches to entrepreneurial action. Copyright (c) 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment
- ÍtemInstitutional complexity and social entrepreneurship: A fuzzy-set approach(01/04/2016) Muñoz, Pablo; Kibler, EwaldThis study examines the local institutional complexity of social entrepreneurship. Building on a novel fuzzy-set analysis of 407 social entrepreneurs in the UK, the study identifies five configurations of local institutional forces that collectively explain the confidence of social entrepreneurs in successfully managing their business. The findings demonstrate that local authorities are a dominant condition; yet combinations of other complementary—more and less formalized—local institutions need to be in place to promote the development of social entrepreneurship.
- ÍtemUsage of Child Care and Education Centers: The Proximity Factor(01/04/2016) Dussaillant, FranciscaThe Chilean Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey was used to model the choices made by households with respect to day care or preschool (DC/PS) attendance. We also use georeferenced data on the location of centers that could take care of children. We present a detailed analysis of the correlates of DC/PS attendance choices, giving special attention to the distance between the household and the center as predictors. For these purposes, the joint decision of child attendance to DC/PS and mother's employment is modeled. The measurement of this association is relatively new to the literature because it requires georeferenced data, which only recently have begun to be collected systematically by public policy agencies. The association we find between distance and attendance to DC/PS centers is significant but smaller than the association to the age of the child. Separate analyses for 0- to 14-month-olds and 25- to 54-month-olds show some heterogeneous effects on the joint decision of attendance and education.
- ÍtemEl aula Preescolar como espacio de desarrollo cognitivo: tipo de feedback docente y control metacognitivo en los niños(01/04/2016) Muñoz, Liz; Santa Cruz, JosefinaIntroduction: The aim of this work was to determine whether the type of feedback given by the preschool teacher during class impacts the children's metacognitive control. For this purpose, the children's behavior was analyzed while teachers provided feedback during collaborative learning sessions. Method: A quasi-experimental, cross-sectional study included two experimental groups and a control group. The age of participants ranged from 4.8 to 5.3 years old; all of them regularly attended a school located in La Pintana, Santiago, Chile. Their educators were trained in delivery of either self-regulation feedback or task/person feedback. While students performed collaborative work related to the Chilean curriculum, educators provided the different types of feedback. A total of 18 learning experiences were videotaped and analyzed using Videograph and SPSS software. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed between the groups of children that received feedback. A greater number of metacognitive control events were displayed by preschoolers who received self-regulation feedback: in total number of events and in number of events representing each of the three dimensions of metacognitive control (planning, monitoring and evaluation). Discussion and conclusions: Not all feedback modifies the metacognitive control of preschoolers. Low-cost training in self-regulation feedback and its daily practice equip the preschool teacher to be a key facilitator of children's cognitive development.
- ÍtemInvestigación UDD, n° 2, abril 2016(Universidad del Desarrollo. Dirección de Investigación, 01/04/2016)Contenidos: Síndrome de Deleción del Cromosoma 22: Una condición común pero desconocida / Chromosome 22 Deletion Syndrome: A common but unknown condition ; Justicia e Igualdad Constitucional / Justice and Constitutional Equality ; Los impactos sociales y económicos de las variaciones de los recursoshídricos / Economic and social impacts of variations on water Resources ; La Teoría de Juegos explica el Comportamiento Humano / Game Theory explains Human Behavior
- ÍtemA combined photovoltaic and novel renewable energy system: An optimized techno-economic analysis for mining industry applications(01/04/2017) Vyhmeister, Eduardo; Muñoz, Cristina Aleixendri; Bermúdez, José Miguel; Pina Moya, Javier; Fúnez Guerra, Carlos; Rodríguez Mayor, Lourdes; Godoy Faúndez, Alex; Higueras, Pablo; Clemente-Jul, Carmen; Valdés-González, Héctor; Reyes-Bozo, LorenzoThe productivity of the mining industry in Chile, currently the main driver of Chilean economy, is closely tied to foreign demand for ores. Ore-processing is known for involving energy–intensive processes, such as comminution, concentrating and cathodic processes. As mining activities take place in the arid north of Chile, they are affected by water scarcity. Water shortage has forced the industry to pump desalinated seawater up to mining sites over 2000 m above sea level, further increasing electricity consumption. Given these energy needs, and the fact that electrical energy supply in the north of Chile is based on fossil fuels, it is important to consider the use of renewable energies as environment-friendly and economic alternatives. The aim of this work is to evaluate, by an optimized techno-economic analysis, the use of photovoltaic and a novel wind-based technology to supply at least 10% of the current and the predicted electrical energy requirements of the mining industry in the Antofagasta region. A combination of an optimization problem and technical evaluation was performed using Matlab to obtain the optimal number of solar and wind-based technology units in a case study. Total energy generation from a novel wind-based technology unit is 67,616 MWh/y, corresponding to 14.45·106 Nm3 (1298 t) of hydrogen and 7.41·106 Nm3(10,323 t) of oxygen after electrolytical transformation. Considering a 65% efficiency of the combined cycle fed with hydrogen and oxygen, 28,133 MWh/y of electrical energy would be obtained. For the cases studied the cost of energy from the combined system was estimated to be between 0.255 US$/kWh and 0.273 US$/kWh, slightly higher than the average energy regional cost. According to the analysis, the renewable energy system could be a sustainable alternative to supply economic green energy to the mining industry in Chile.