Artículos Arquitectura

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  • Publication
    Long-established rules and emergent challenges: spatial planning and wildfires in Chile
    (2023) González-Mathiesen, Constanza; March, Alan
    It is generally expected that spatial planning integrates wildfire risk reduction considerations in areas affected by this hazard. However, many spatial planning systems are challenged to adequately deal with this risk. There is a need for applied understandings of planning systems characteristics that facilitate or impede wildfire risk reduction. Accordingly, this research explores spatial planning limitations to the integration of wildfire risk reduction measures by comparing spatial planning and wildfire risk reduction measures based on five key dimensions: structure, realm, spatial scale, territorial boundaries, and time scale. The research used a qualitative case study strategy of the Chilean spatial planning system, employing qualitative content analysis of key documents. The results show that the long-established characteristics of Chile’s spatial planning limit its ability to accommodate wildfire risk reduction measures in the five dimensions analyzed. The research contributes to understanding some of spatial planning’s constraints to manage wider complex challenges.
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    Embracing the challenges of urban resilience
    (2022) March, Alan; González-Mathiesen, Constanza
    Urban resilience presents multiple challenges to the disaster risk reduction sector, as well as to the many professionals and other stakeholders who manage and use the built environment. A range of guides, initiatives, charters and strategies aim to improve urban resilience. However, it remains unclear how the enormity of the task can be addressed comprehensively, even while specific actions may be effective in targeted ways. This paper suggests that the field of action and core ‘work’ of resilience depends on embracing and working on the problematics of achieving city resilience.
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    Inteligencia colaborativa y realidad extendida: nuevas estrategias de visualización
    (2022) Galleguillos-Negroni, Valentina; Mazzarini Watts, Piero; Quintanilla-Chala, José
    From the experience gained since the beginning of the pandemic, we can affirm that not everything can be taught online or everything in person. Now, there is a gap that it is important to identify in a teaching that articulates the fase-to-face-online and to know the optimal dosaje to guarantee quality training. Everything indicates that both systems should converse in a hybrid methodology, or, better said, balanced or harmonized. The challenge is to define the proportion of each thing, both in time and intensity. It seems that, in the conquest of this necessary balance or harmony, “collaborative intelligence” offers unsuspected rules of the game. Increasingly we can find this questioning in various institutions around the world and not only referred to the field of architecture education but in all those áreas in which, in the transition from knowing to doing, they seek new meanings.
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    Aeropuerto Arturo Merino Benítez
    (2018) Amunategui, Sergio; Stantec Architecture + Amunátegui Barreau Arquitectos aia; Barreau, Carmen; Smith, Stanis; Vidal, Luis
    Pese al declive de los discursos como el marketing urbano o la arquitectura espectáculo, las grandes infraestructuras de transporte siguen siendo una necesidad para las ciudades que quieren participar de la economía global. Así, no es casual que el nuevo aeropuerto de Santiago sea el edificio en construcción más grande de Chile. Pero su tamaño no sólo tiene que ver con la cantidad de pasajeros que recibirá, sino también con la escala de sus principales usuarios: las aeronaves.
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    El comercio informal de calle en las comunas Santiago y Concepción
    (2017) Souza, Mónica de; Bustos, Alexander
    El objetivo de este artículo es analizar los resultados de la investigación empírica sobre el comercio callejero de las comunas de Santiago y Concepción realizada entre marzo de 2015 y febrero de 2016. Dichos resultados fundamentaron la elaboración de un Mapa del comercio informal de calle y contribuyeron a la identificación de aspectos importantes de ese fenómeno, como su extensión sobre el territorio, el número de trabajadores involucrados, rasgos del comportamiento de dichos trabajadores y la relación de esa actividad con el espacio urbano.
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    Land Use Planning for Disaster Resilient Communities
    (2020) Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience; March, Alan; González-Mathiesen, Constanza
    Land-use planning that considers natural hazard risk is the single most important mitigation measure in minimising the increase in future disaster losses in areas of new development. The Land Use Planning for Disaster Resilient Communities handbook focuses on land use planning for new development and its role in supporting disaster-resilient communities. It outlines nationally agreed on principles for good practice in land use planning to build disaster-resilient communities. The handbook introduces community wellbeing and disaster resilience as the overarching aim of land use planning and disaster risk reduction and outlines nationally agreed on principles for land use planning for disaster resilient communities. The aim and principles provide the context for good practice in general as well as across the document. The handbook also presents a procedural framework for land use planning for disaster resilient communities. The framework can be applied across the decision-making process at the different levels of land use planning. It is intended to guide and assist a range of stakeholders including: Natural hazard and emergency managers - to build capacity in and understanding of the impact of natural hazard risks in land use planning; Land-use planners, build environment professionals and developers - to build awareness of and capacity in engaging with natural hazard and emergency managers and to integrate natural hazard risk assessment into the planning process; Community members and leaders - to provide an understanding of the reasons for and main mechanisms of risk management in land use planning in their communities and the interdependencies between diverse actors' decisions as these related to natural hazard risks.
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    Urban planning’s role in the development, transfer, and application of knowledge about bushfire risk management in Victoria
    (2017) González-Mathiesen, Constanza; March, Alan
    Internationally, there is increasing concern with developing improved ways of dealing with disasters (UNISDR, 2015). The development of policy and practices for the reduction of disaster risk is intimately related to knowledge about dynamic and spatially particular risks and relevant ways of managing these via informed decisions and coordinated action (Weichselgartner and Pigeon, 2015). It is now commonly accepted that integrating disaster risk considerations into urban planning process is advantageous - what is less widely discussed is urban planning’s proper role when interacting with disaster risk management knowledge. This paper examines urban planning’s role in the development, transfer, and application of knowledge about bushfire risk management in Victoria. It argues that urban planning, in partnership with other disciplines, has the capacity to put risk management knowledge into action to manage risk by applying it in an effective and contextualized manner to overcome barriers, bridging the gap between spatial and aspatial policies. It reports the manner in which Victoria's connections between strategic and statutory planning, and other implementation activities and processes, are often incomplete, contradictory, or are simply uncertain in the outcomes they actually achieve. The paper contributes to planning theory and practice dealing with disasters and resilient settlements. It increases awareness of urban planning processes that develop, transfer, and apply bushfire risk management knowledge, and the barriers to overcome to be effective.
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    Real Estate Social Market Employing a PPP Approach: The Chilean Case
    (2017) Oliveros R., José; González-Mathiesen, Constanza
    Engaging the private sector in the social housing provision is a contested public policy discussion in Australia and internationally. A valuable reference case for Australia is the social housing policy in Chile, which has drifted from a traditional procurement approach, meaning that the public sector is in charge of providing housing units; to a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) approach in which a real estate social housing market was created using demand subsidy certificates and certified private social housing developers. The evolution of social housing in Chile has been well documented and assessed; however, studies have not distinguished between the effects associated to the current procurement method (PPP) and to the public policy (strategy). This research aims to understand whether the source of the impacts is the public policy or the procurement method; differentiating which procurement method appears to have better performance. The conclusion of the article is that most impacts are related to the public policy as a whole; and in general term, the PPP approach has a better performance compare to the traditional procurement approach. These findings contribute to have a clearer understanding of the effects of a PPP approach to social housing provision, adding to the Australian social housing discussion and public policy decision-making.
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    Urban planning: historical changes integrating bushfire risk management in Victoria
    (2019) González-Mathiesen, Constanza; March, Alan; Leonard, Justin; Holland, Mark; Blanchi, Raphaele
    Bushfires represent an increasing risk for people and properties in exposed urban areas. The integration of bushfire risk management considerations into urban planning is one of the approaches used to address this challenge. This paper summarises the key changes in urban planning and building regulations that were introduced in Victoria over time to minimise the effects of bushfire on settlements. These have generally occurred within four main eras, being the independent origins of planning and bushfire risk management, the progressive emergence of bushfire risk management into urban planning between the late 1970s and the early 1990s, the formalisation of bushfire risk management via urban planning with the Wildfire Management Overlay in 1997 and the 2011 reforms associated with the Bushfire Management Overlay and its following adjustments. Advancements in urban planning regulation have usually occurred after bushfire events that inflicted significant losses on communities. These changes represent an ongoing trend towards the integration of bushfire risk reduction measures into urban planning mechanisms.
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    Desafíos para las interfaces urbano-rurales propensas a incendios forestales: El caso de Melbourne
    (2019) González-Mathiesen, Constanza; March, Alan; Stanley, Janet
    Los incendios forestales son una amenaza creciente para muchos residentes de las interfaces urbano-rurales situadas en áreas propensas a estos siniestros. La planificación espacial es un aspecto importante al lidiar con el riesgo de incendio forestal, ya que tiene el potencial de modificar el diseño, la ubicación y las características de los asentamientos. Sin embargo, los sistemas de planificación pueden tener dificultades para integrar acciones al respecto. Este documento reflexiona sobre los mecanismos para tratar los factores clave de riesgo de incendio forestal en las interfaces urbano-rural y los desafíos asociados a esta tarea, a través de un estudio de caso, el de Melbourne. Este se analiza desde la perspectiva de los mecanismos de planificación espacial que abordan el riesgo de incendio forestal, relacionados a las estructuras físicas y a los roles de los organismos. Los mecanismos físicos para tratar el riesgo se examinan considerando la cartografía, la acción estratégica y los procesos de toma de decisiones. Finalmente, se destacan los siguientes desafíos a los que se enfrentan los mencionados mecanismos de planificación: influencia directa e indirecta de la política; otros requerimientos de planificación que compiten y frenan la gestión de riesgos; limitaciones de implementación; y problemas asociados al legado de riesgo en asentamientos existentes.
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    Guide proposal for urban planning for fostering wildfire resilient timber construction in the urban-rural interface
    (2021) González-Mathiesen, Constanza; March, Alan
    In wildfire-prone urban-rural interface areas, policies for fostering wildfire resilient timber construction need to consider the risks associated with the interaction between wildfires and buildings, implementing wildfire risk reduction strategies. By comprehensively integrating wildfire risk reduction considerations, urban planning can contribute to implementing policies for fostering wildfire resilient approaches to timber construction. However urban planning systems often fail to do so, addressing wildfires partially and inconsistently. Thus, there is a need to set out comprehensive approaches to urban planning for wildfire risk reduction. To address this gap, this paper aims to propose a guide for urban planning integrating wildfire risk reduction considerations that can contribute to foster wildfire resilient timber construction in wildfire-prone areas. The study was approached as inductive qualitative research of two case studies: the urban planning systems of Chile and Victoria (Australia). Based on the analysis, the research presents a normative guide for urban planning integrating wildfire risk reduction considerations based on three broad categories: legislation; spatial plans; and implementation processes. The framework presented serves as a guide to fostering resilient timber construction in wildfire-prone areas by comprehensively integrating wildfire risk reduction considerations into urban planning systems.
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    Developing guidelines for increasing the resilience of informal settlements exposed to wildfire risk using a risk-based planning approach
    (2021) González-Mathiesen, Constanza; March, Alan
    Internationally, there is an increasing concern with the development of improved ways of dealing with disasters(UNISDR, 2015). Wildfires bring about greater disaster risks at the urban-rural interface of wildfireprone areas, where lives and properties are more exposed. These risks are often greater in contexts of informality, where settlements have been built with limited consideration of risks. This chapter reports on the production of guidelines to develop resilience to wildfires for communities living in informal settlements exposed to wildfire risk. It responds to Sendai Framework for Action's priority one “understanding disaster risk” (UNISDR, 2015, p.15). The investigation is approached through participatory action research. It is the result of a collaboration between diverse stakeholders during the seminar ‘Prevention of Forest Fire Risks in Urban Settlements and Buildings: A Planning and Design Approach’. The study case is Agüita de la Perdiz, in Concepcion, Chile, an informal settlement with ongoing wildfire risk. The seminar’s product is condensed in a set of guidelines. These guidelines – and the process of producing them – are expected to contribute to disseminating knowledge about general design and planning strategies to mitigate wildfire risk as well as to strengthen local capacities. It is argued that the collaborative process undertaken to develop the guidelines is replicable in other places to address contextspecific issues.
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    Integrating wildfire risk management and spatial planning – A historical review of two Australian planning systems
    (2021) González-Mathiesen, Constanza; Ruane, Simone; March, Alan
    Recent wildfires burning throughout Australia highlight the vulnerability of settlements located in wildland urban interface (WUI) areas. Spatial planning has a critical role in operationalising wildfire risk reduction considerations in a territorial manner across the WUI. Accordingly, more integrated approaches to wildfire management and spatial planning are necessary. However, there is limited literature examining the historical interactions between wildfire and spatial planning policy sectors and how institutions and policy instruments adapt over time to integrate mutually dependent considerations. To address this gap, this research examines how Australian spatial planning institutions and instruments evolved since European settlement to incorporate wildfire considerations, through a qualitative comparative case study approach of two Australian states. Based on the findings of the case study comparison, this paper presents a conceptual framework of the pathways towards increased policy integration of spatial planning and wildfire risk reduction that consists of six phases. It is argued that the path to greater policy integration is grounded on the development of common knowledge, a crossdisciplinary understanding, and agreed policy goals between different policy sectors, that, with time, translate into new institutional arrangements and instruments that integrate the work and decision-making processes of different sectors.
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    Establishing Principles for Bushfire Resilient Urban Planning
    (2018) González-Mathiesen, Constanza
    The aim of this study is to elaborate on the built and natural environment disciplines’ potential to develop applied understandings of resilience, using the example of land-use planning design guides in bushfire prone areas. The central argument of this study is that land-use planning can develop and apply spatial and physical resilience principles to disasters, contributing to developing meaningful ways of achieving resilience by bridging the space between overarching goals and the specificity of individual contexts. The study concludes that there are nine design principles that can improve settlements resilience in bushfire prone areas to reduce bushfire risk, organized under two major categories: acting on vulnerability and facilitating response.
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    Infrastructure and land value: Who benefits from state investment?
    (01/08/2018) Allard Serrano, Pablo; Cociña, Camila
    In his 2018 Public Account, Chilean President Sebastián Piñera announced the expansion of Santiago’s Metro system towards Bajos de Mena, one of the most isolated - and stigmatized - neighborhoods of the city. After the initial thrill of connecting the area to the metropolitan transport system, critical voices addressed a key issue: such a considerable investment has an impact on the value of land. Two potentially dramatic scenarios thus unfold: on the one hand, the State investment generates surplus value to private entities; on the other, the escalation of land value ends up displacing those citizens whom this infrastructure sought to favor. What should be done at this crossroads? Are these inevitable consequences or can something actually be done? For this issue on infrastructure, we are interested in knowing whether the effect that State-built infrastructure has on land value is important, or if it’s an irrelevant externality when it comes to evaluating these projects.
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    Santiago, Ciudad Capital: Las Formas de la Periferia, 1836-1875
    (2016) Rosas Vera, José; Strabucchi Chambers, Wren; Fernández Valbuena, Pilar
    In the first half of the XIX century, Santiago territorial scale registers, two ways of growth that precedes to the urban expansion and modernization to be inaugurated towards 1870: one, by extending the model of the foundational grid and other, by creating autonomous centres in strategic positions that intensify rural land in areas adjacent to the central city. Confirm this process, derived from rural migration and population increases, three episodes constitute the first units of residential composition and places with their own identity out of the watercourses that limited the consolidated urban grid until 1841. These isolated operations, reveals new processes of transformation of the territory and the strength of an incipient phase of metropolization of nineteenth-century city; however, in a general reading they have been minimized in urban history and invisibilized in the cartographic records of Santiago.
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    Fables from the reconstruction: Lessons from Chile's recovery after the 2010 earthquake and tsunami
    (2016) Allard Serrano, Pablo; Arrasate, María Ignacia
    Accelerating urbanization worldwide means more urban-centered disasters. Floods, earthquakes, storms and conflicts affecting densely populated areas produce significant losses in lives, livelihoods and the built environment, especially in comparison to rural areas. Poor urban dwellers, almost always the most vulnerable, too often bear the brunt. Aid agencies and urban professionals have been slowly adapting to these new conditions, but older models and practices hinder the most effective engagements. Drawing directly from the experiences of urban disasters in the Philippines, Chile, India, Thailand, Iraq, Haiti and Nepal, among other countries, Urban Disaster Resilience brings to light new collaborations and techniques for addressing the challenges of urban disasters in the coming years. Chapters range from country-specific case studies to more synthetic frameworks in order to promote innovative thinking and practical solutions. Edited by David Sanderson, Jerold S. Kayden and Julia Leis, this book is a crucial read for humanitarian and disaster specialists, urban planners and designers, architects, landscape architects, housing and economic development professionals, real estate developers, private business managers and students interested in the subject, whether based in non-governmental organizations, local, state or national governments, international agencies, private firms, or the academy.
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    Herreros Arquitectos
    (2016) Hermansen Cordua, Christian
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    Gestión urbana municipal a escala metropolitana: modelos en competencia
    (2012) Orellana, Arturo; Allard Serrano, Pablo; Nespolo, Romina; Mercado, José
    La pregunta que guía el desarrollo de este artículo es ¿qué se entiende por gestión urbana municipal?, particularmente para el caso de las áreas metropolitanas de Chile. Alcanzar esta respuesta supuso metodológicamente trabajar en construir un cierto consenso entre diferentes actores (sector público, sector privado, academia y sociedad civil) respecto a lo que debiera entenderse por gestión urbana municipal. Resuelto lo anterior, se determinó que conviven dentro del espacio metropolitano al menos tres modelos de gestión urbana municipal y que, ante la ausencia de un gobierno metropolitano como tal, cada municipio bajo un marco normativo y de manera autónoma, promueve o se aproxima a uno de estos modelos. Un primer modelo que denominaremos Prestador de Servicios, donde prima una concepción de la ciudadanía como cliente con predominio del mercado como agente transformador del espacio urbano, sin participación relevante de la sociedad civil. Un segundo modelo, el cual denominaremos Promotor, donde el municipio incide en las decisiones de inversión privadas directa o indirectamente, pero sin participación ciudadana relevante. Y, finalmente, un tercero que denominaremos Participativo, el cual apuesta a que la sociedad civil tenga un rol activo en los procesos de decisión en materia de gestión urbana municipal, restringiendo en forma importante la acción del mercado.
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    Lo relativo de la Belleza
    (2011) Fernández, Leslie