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Pérez, J. Carola

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Pérez

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J. Carola

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Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • Publication
    Wellbeing, social media addiction and coping strategies among Chilean adolescents during the pandemic
    (2023) Varela, Jorge; Pérez, J. Carola; Rodríguez-Rivas, Matías E.; Chuecas, María Josefina; Romo, Javiera
    Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents had to deal with a range of mental health problems that has increased social media addiction levels with adverse effects on life satisfaction. Previous studies have explored coping mechanisms to deal with this addiction problem, but did not consider the need to simultaneously cope with different dimensions. Therefore, our study aimed to examine the moderating effect of various coping mechanisms on the relationship between social media addiction and adolescent life satisfaction. Methods: Self-report questionnaires were applied to 1290 secondary school students (age mean = 16.03, SD = 1.27, range: 14 to 19; and 57% female). An exploratory and a confirmatory factor analysis were performed to determine the factor structure of the Brief-Cope 28 scale. Then, a descriptive and correlational analysis of the variables and a multiple linear regression analysis was performed. Results: We found that the social media addiction risk was negatively associated with life satisfaction, adaptive strategies were positively correlated to life satisfaction, and maladaptive strategies were negatively correlated to it. Also, a moderation model was evaluated in which four stress management strategies, namely acceptance and perspective-taking, seeking socio-emotional support, active coping, and maladaptive strategies all conditioned the relationship between social media addiction risk and life satisfaction after controlling for demographic variables and the specific strategies of using comedy, religion and substance use. Results indicate additive and multiplicative effects of management strategies for stressful situations in the studied relationship. Seeking socio-emotional support and active coping were positively related to life satisfaction and maladaptive strategies were negatively associated with it. Multiplicative effects indicate that the relationship between the social media addiction risk and life satisfaction depends only on the acceptance and perspective taking that adolescents report. When adolescents reported having low or average levels of acceptance and perspective taking, there was a negative correlation with general life satisfaction, a connection that grew markedly stronger. In contrast, no connection between social media addiction and life satisfaction was detected for adolescents who report higher levels of acceptance and perspective-taking. Discussion: Abuse of social media and the use of maladaptive stress coping strategies were risk factors that decreased life satisfaction among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic period.
  • Publication
    Trajectories of Parental Daily Stress: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study during the COVID-19 Lockdown
    (2023) Aldoney, Daniela; Coo, Soledad; Pérez, J. Carola; Muñoz-Najar, Andrés; González, Constanza; Montemurro, Manuel; Tapia, Leonel; Gana, Sofía; Silva, Luz María; Panesso, Carolina; Silva, Jaime
    The COVID-19 pandemic was a source of significant stress due to health and safety concerns and measures to control the virus’ spread, such as mobility restrictions. This measure was especially demanding for parents with school aged children, who had to find new work–family balance as their children participate in online education while attempting to work remotely. To evaluate parents’ stress trajectories during the pandemic, we conducted Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMAs) during lockdown for 29 days in 68 families in Santiago, Chile. In addition, we evaluated the role of educational level and income, co-parenting, and number of children in parents’ stress trajectories. Our results showed that during the first weeks of lockdown expected protective factors (i.e., income and co-parental support) were not able to influence parents’ daily stress management. Moreover, parents with higher educational levels reported worse stress adaptation than less educated parents. On the other hand, co-parental conflict was significantly associated with parent’s stress. Our study captured an acute response to COVID-19 related challenges. This study contributes to understanding how parents adjust to stress during adverse circumstances such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Publication
    Wellbeing, social media addiction and coping strategies among Chilean adolescents during the pandemic
    (2023) Varela, Jorge; Pérez, J. Carola; Rodríguez-Rivas, Matías E.; Chuecas, María Josefina; Romo Neira, Javiera
    Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents had to deal with a range of mental health problems that has increased social media addiction levels with adverse effects on life satisfaction. Previous studies have explored coping mechanisms to deal with this addiction problem, but did not consider the need to simultaneously cope with different dimensions. Therefore, our study aimed to examine the moderating effect of various coping mechanisms on the relationship between social media addiction and adolescent life satisfaction. Methods: Self-report questionnaires were applied to 1290 secondary school students (age mean = 16.03, SD = 1.27, range: 14 to 19; and 57% female). An exploratory and a confirmatory factor analysis were performed to determine the factor structure of the Brief-Cope 28 scale. Then, a descriptive and correlational analysis of the variables and a multiple linear regression analysis was performed. Results: We found that the social media addiction risk was negatively associated with life satisfaction, adaptive strategies were positively correlated to life satisfaction, and maladaptive strategies were negatively correlated to it. Also, a moderation model was evaluated in which four stress management strategies, namely acceptance and perspective-taking, seeking socio-emotional support, active coping, and maladaptive strategies all conditioned the relationship between social media addiction risk and life satisfaction after controlling for demographic variables and the specific strategies of using comedy, religion and substance use. Results indicate additive and multiplicative effects of management strategies for stressful situations in the studied relationship. Seeking socio-emotional support and active coping were positively related to life satisfaction and maladaptive strategies were negatively associated with it. Multiplicative effects indicate that the relationship between the social media addiction risk and life satisfaction depends only on the acceptance and perspective taking that adolescents report. When adolescents reported having low or average levels of acceptance and perspective taking, there was a negative correlation with general life satisfaction, a connection that grew markedly stronger. In contrast, no connection between social media addiction and life satisfaction was detected for adolescents who report higher levels of acceptance and perspective-taking. Discussion: Abuse of social media and the use of maladaptive stress coping strategies were risk factors that decreased life satisfaction among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic period.
  • Publication
    Understanding the use/non-use of an internet-based intervention complementing standard depression treatment: A qualitative study of user's experiences
    (2023) Fernández, Olga; Pérez, J. Carola; Fernández, Sofía; Krause, Mariane; Cáceres, Cristián; Espinosa-Duque, Daniel
    Introduction: There is sufficient evidence about the effectiveness of internet-based interventions; however, the users’ level of adoption and utilization remains low, with this phenomenon requiring adequate explanation. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the users’ perceptions and experience of a web-based program (ASCENSO), designed to complement (usual) in-person depression treatment. Method: Twelve participants of the ASCENSO program, comprised of adult individuals (M = 44.3, SD = 13.4) of both genders (67% women) undergoing treatment for depression, were interviewed through semistructured interviews. The data obtained from these interviews were analyzed utilizing a constructivist grounded theory approach. The interviews were tran scribed and analyzed by trained coders. A constant comparative analysis of emergent themes was conducted. Results: These show that users employ and appreciate the program when their interaction with it emulates a “humanized relationship,” that is, when the program is proactive in assisting users with their requests and when it responds in a pertinent and individualized manner to their emotional states and needs. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the challenges associated with the development of algorithms capable of attracting different potential users. These should be designed to generate a virtual relationship that emulates human interaction and targets the characteristics of each user, for example, considering the specific phenomenology of their health condition, their present emotional states, and perceived needs. Elements that will vary as mental symptomatology evolve.
  • Publication
    Couples’ extrinsic emotion regulation and dyadic adjustment: an actor‑partner interdependence model analysis
    (2022) Kinkead, Ana; Salas, Christian; Pérez, J. Carola
    Couples’ extrinsic emotion regulation strategies are associated with marital quality or dyadic adjustment. However, only the strategies employed according to the objective they are expected to achieve have been examined; it is not known if strategies on the bases of positive or negative extrinsic emotion regulation motivation would have the same consequences for the dyad. The purpose of this study was to examine if extrinsic emotion regulation (EER) predicts one’s own and one’s partner’s dyadic adjustment and if this effect differs by gender and relationship length. Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (a type of dyadic data analysis, which incorporates the scores of the two members of the relationship into the analyses), data from 103 Chilean couples who completed self-report scales on dyadic adjustment and EER were analyzed. The participants were between 22 and 78 years old (Mmen = 39.84, SD = 11.37; Mwomen = 38.01, SD = 10.64), and the relationship lengths were between 1 and 50 years (M = 12.98, SD = 11.53). The motivation or the intention to make the partner feel good (positive) or bad (negative) respectively predict higher and lower dyadic adjustment in both the one who uses the strategy (actor) and the receiver of the strategy (partner). There was no difference by gender or by duration of the relationship in the dyads, but there was with children in common. It is important to consider the motivation underlying the emotional management of the couple, given its implication in marital quality and the need to broaden the understanding of other EERs related to healthy dyadic functioning.
  • Publication
    Supervisión en una Unidad de Clínica de Adultos de un Centro de Salud Mental Universitario : un estudio cualitativo del proceso
    (2023) Pérez, J. Carola; Saralegui Fernández, Daniela
    Las supervisiones clínicas cumplen un rol esencial dentro de la formación profesional del psicólogo clínico. Se han desarrollado diferentes modelos de supervisión, sin embargo, pocos estudios abordan el cómo se desarrolla el proceso de supervisión propiamente tal. Objetivo: Describir las dinámicas de supervisión clínica grupal en la Unidad de Adultos del Servicio de Psicología Integral de una Clínica Universitaria, que proporciona atención psicológica a la comunidad. Metodología: Estudio cualitativo descriptivo y de alcance transversal, en una muestra de 5 sesiones de supervisión videograbadas, cuya interacción verbal fue sometida a análisis de contenido convencional. Resultados: Se distinguen aspectos de la apertura del proceso de supervisión, en el cual se identifica una dificultad variable de los supervisados para formular preguntas de supervisión, dificultad enmarcada en un contexto de involucramiento afectivo de los supervisados. Se identifican intervenciones de los miembros del equipo de supervisión: una transversal de validación de la experiencia del supervisado; e intervenciones durante el proceso de supervisión, como, por ejemplo, preguntas dirigidas a revisar “la experiencia” del supervisado durante la atención del caso; “construcción de hipótesis comprensivas del caso”, y la entrega de “sugerencias para el abordaje terapéutico” del caso en específico, y/o que pueden ser aplicados a otros casos.
  • Publication
    Transformación del sistema y experiencia docente en pandemia: análisis desde la teoría de la actividad
    (2024) Gonzalez Palacios, Micaela; Hojman, Viviana; Pérez, J. Carola; Valenzuela Ramírez, Pilar
    Las medidas de distanciamiento social implementadas durante la pandemia por covid-19 trasladaron la actividad educativa en Chile al formato virtual. Con el fin de explorar la experiencia docente en relación con la educación remota en contexto de pandemia, se realizó un estudio cualitativo basado en una epistemología dialéctica. Participaron cinco docentes de educación básica de un colegio particular subvencionado de una comuna semi rural de la Región Metropolitana de Chile. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas y se analizaron utilizando la Teoría de la Actividad Histórica-Cultural. Los resultados indican que, junto con la incorporación de nuevas herramientas tecnológicas en la mediación de aprendizajes, hubo tensiones asociadas con la incorporación de las familias al proceso, cambios en las reglas y límites del trabajo, y aislamiento en la comunidad escolar. Todo lo anterior influyó en una evaluación principalmente negativa de la experiencia por parte de las y los docentes entrevistados.
  • Publication
    Reducing stigma toward people with serious mental illness through a virtual reality intervention: a randomized controlled trial
    (2023) Rodríguez-Rivas, Matías E.; Cangas, Adolfo J.; Martín, Andrés; Romo, Javiera; Pérez, J. Carola; Valdebenito, Sara; Cariola, Laura; Onetto, Josefina; Hernández, Bárbara; Ceric Garrido, Francisco; CEA GONZÁLEZ, PABLO ANTONIO; Corrigan, Patrick
    Background: Stigma toward people with serious mental illnesses (SMI), like schizophrenia, is a serious global public health challenge that limits the quality of life of those affected and poses a major barrier that keeps people from seeking professional help. There is an urgent need for novel, effective, and scalable interventions to decrease stigmatized perceptions of chronic psychotic disorders and to reduce the health burden imposed by them. Method: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of a new immersive virtual reality game (Inclúyete-VR) on the level of stigma toward people with SMI, measured by the AQ-27 Attribution Questionnaire. Participants in the experimental group were exposed in an immersive way to hallucinations common in schizophrenia, then shown different psychosocial resources available for their recovery and social inclusion; those in the control group used VR software unrelated to mental health. VR sessions were delivered through Oculus headgear and lasted 25 minutes. Results: We randomly assigned 124 university students (55% female) to experimental or control conditions (n=62 each). We used mixed ANOVA to compare outcomes before and after the intervention between the two groups. We found a significant intervention-by-time interaction (p<0.001), with a reduction in the experimental group of overall stigma levels on the AQ-27 scale and its three subscales: dangerousness-fear, avoidance, and lack of solidarity (p<0.001 for all). Conclusions: The Inclúyete-VR software proved effective in the short term in reducing stigma toward people with severe mental illness. The program’s longer-term efficacy, scalability, and dissemination remain to be studied.