Araos Bralic, Rafael Ignacio

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Araos Bralic

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Rafael Ignacio


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  • Publication
    Effect of Combination Antibiotic Empirical Therapy on Mortality in Neutropenic Cancer Patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia
    (2022) Albasanz-Puig, Adaia; Durà-Miralles, Xavier; Laporte-Amargós, Júlia; Mussetti, Alberto; Ruiz-Camps, Isabel; Puerta-Alcalde, Pedro ; Abdala, Edson ; Oltolini, Chiara; Akova, Murat; Montejo ,José Miguel; Malgorzata, Mikulska; Martín-Dávila, Pilar; Herrera, Fabián; Gasch, Oriol; Drgona, Lubos; Paz Morales, Hugo Manuel; Brunel, Anne-Sophie; García, Estefanía; Isler, Burcu; Kern, Winfried V.; Retamar-Gentil, Pilar; Aguado, José María; Montero, Milagros; Kanj, Souha S.; Sipahi, Oguz R.; Calik, Sebnem; Márquez-Gómez, Ignacio; Marín, Jorge I.; Gomes, Marisa Z.R.; Hemmati, Philipp; Araos Bralic, Rafael Ignacio; Peghin, Magdalena; Pozo, José Luis del; Yáñez, Lucrecia; Tilley, Robert; Manzur, Adriana; Novo, Andres; Pallarès, Natàlia; Bergas, Alba; Carratalà, Jordi; Gudiol, Carlota; The Ironic Study Group
    To assess the effect of combination antibiotic empirical therapy on 30-day case-fatality rate in neutropenic cancer patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) bacteremic pneumonia. This was a multinational, retrospective cohort study of neutropenic onco-hematological patients with PA bloodstream infection (BSI) (2006−2018). The effect of appropriate empirical combination therapy, appropriate monotherapy and inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy [IEAT] on 30-day case-fatality was assessed only in patients with PA bacteremic pneumonia. Among 1017 PA BSI episodes, pneumonia was the source of BSI in 294 (28.9%). Among those, 52 (17.7%) were caused by a multidrug-resistant (MDR) strain and 68 (23.1%) received IEAT, mainly when the infection was caused by an MDR strain [38/52 (73.1%) vs. 30/242 (12.4%); p < 0.001]. The 30-day case-fatality rate was higher in patients with PA bacteremic pneumonia than in those with PA BSI from other sources (55.1% vs. 31.4%; p < 0.001). IEAT was associated with increased 30-day case-fatality (aHR 1.44 [95%CI 1.01−2.03]; p = 0.042), whereas the use of appropriate combination empirical treatment was independently associated with improved survival (aHR 0.46 [95%CI 0.27−0.78]; p = 0.004). Appropriate empirical monotherapy was not associated with improved overall survival (aHR 1.25 [95%CI 0.76−2.05]; p = 0.39). Combination antibiotic empirical therapy should be administered promptly in febrile neutropenic patients with suspected pneumonia as the source of infection.
  • Publication
    High Burden of Intestinal Colonization With Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacteria in Chile: An Antibiotic Resistance in Communities and Hospitals (ARCH) Study
    (2023) Araos Bralic, Rafael Ignacio; Smith, Rachel; Styczynski, Ashley; Sánchez, Felipe; Acevedo, Johanna; Maureira, Lea; Paredes, Catalina; González, Maite; Rivas Jiménez, Lina María; Spencer, Maria; Peters, Anne Sophie; Khan, Ayesha; Sepulveda, Dino; Rojas, Loreto; Rioseco, María; Usedo, Pedro; Rojas, Pamela; Huidobro, Laura; Ferreccio, Catterina; Park, Benjamin; Undurraga, Eduardo; D'Agata, Erika; Jara, Alejandro; Munita, Jose M.
    Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat, heavily impacting low- and middle-income countries. This study estimated antimicrobial-resistant gram-negative bacteria (GNB) fecal colonization prevalence in hospitalized and community-dwelling adults in Chile before the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Methods: From December 2018 to May 2019, we enrolled hospitalized adults in 4 public hospitals and community dwellers from central Chile, who provided fecal specimens and epidemiological information. Samples were plated onto MacConkey agar with ciprofloxacin or ceftazidime added. All recovered morphotypes were identified and characterized according to the following phenotypes: fluoroquinolone-resistant (FQR), extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESCR), carbapenem-resistant (CR), or multidrug-resistant (MDR; as per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria) GNB. Categories were not mutually exclusive. Results: A total of 775 hospitalized adults and 357 community dwellers were enrolled. Among hospitalized subjects, the prevalence of colonization with FQR, ESCR, CR, or MDR-GNB was 46.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.9-50.0), 41.2% (95% CI, 37.7-44.6), 14.5% (95% CI, 12.0-16.9), and 26.3% (95% CI, 23.2-29.4). In the community, the prevalence of FQR, ESCR, CR, and MDR-GNB colonization was 39.5% (95% CI, 34.4-44.6), 28.9% (95% CI, 24.2-33.6), 5.6% (95% CI, 3.2-8.0), and 4.8% (95% CI, 2.6-7.0), respectively. Conclusions: A high burden of antimicrobial-resistant GNB colonization was observed in this sample of hospitalized and community-dwelling adults, suggesting that the community is a relevant source of antibiotic resistance. Efforts are needed to understand the relatedness between resistant strains circulating in the community and hospitals.
  • Publication
    Effectiveness of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in children and adolescents: a large-scale observational study
    (2023) Jara, Alejandro; Undurraga, Eduardo; Flores, Juan; Zubizarreta, José; González, Cecilia; Pizarro, Alejandra; Ortuño, Duniel; Acevedo, Johanna; Leo, Katherinne; Paredes, Fabio; Bralic , Tomás; Vergara, Verónica; Leon, Francisco; Parot, Ignacio; Leighton, Paulina; Suárez, Pamela; Rios, Juan; García, Heriberto; Rafael Araos; Araos Bralic, Rafael Ignacio
    Background: Policymakers urgently need evidence to adequately balance the costs and benefits of mass vaccination against COVID-19 across all age groups, including children and adolescents. In this study, we aim to assess the effectiveness of CoronaVac's primary series among children and adolescents in Chile. Methods: We used a large prospective national cohort of about two million children and adolescents 6-16 years to estimate the effectiveness of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CoronaVac) in preventing laboratory-confirmed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19), hospitalisation, and admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) associated with COVID-19. We compared the risk of individuals treated with a complete primary immunization schedule (two doses, 28 days apart) with the risk of unvaccinated individuals during the follow-up period. The study was conducted in Chile from June 27, 2021, to January 12, 2022, when the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant was predominant but other variants of concern were co-circulating, including Omicron. We used inverse probability-weighted survival regression models to estimate hazard ratios of complete immunization over the unvaccinated status, accounting for time-varying vaccination exposure and adjusting for relevant demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical confounders. Findings: The estimated adjusted vaccine effectiveness for the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in children aged 6-16 years was 74.5% (95% CI, 73.8-75.2), 91.0% (95% CI, 87.8-93.4), 93.8% (95% CI, 87.8-93.4) for the prevention of COVID-19, hospitalisation, and ICU admission, respectively. For the subgroup of children 6-11 years, the vaccine effectiveness was 75.8% (95% CI, 74.7-76.8) for the prevention of COVID-19 and 77.9% (95% CI, 61.5-87.3) for the prevention of hospitalisation. Interpretation: Our results suggest that a complete primary immunization schedule with the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine provides effective protection against severe COVID-19 disease for children 6-16 years. Funding: Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID) Millennium Science Initiative Program and Fondo de Financiamiento de Centros de Investigación en Áreas Prioritarias (FONDAP)
  • Publication
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bloodstream Infections in Patients with Cancer: Differences between Patients with Hematological Malignancies and Solid Tumors
    (2022) Royo-Cebrecos, Cristina; Laporte-Amargós, Julia; Peña, Marta; Ruiz-Camps, Isabel; Puerta-Alcalde, Pedro; Abdala, Edson; Oltolini, Chiara; Akova, Murat; Montejo, Miguel; Mikulska, Malgorzata; Martín-Dávila, Pilar; Herrera, Fabian; Gasch, Oriol; Drgona, Lubos; Paz Morales, Hugo Manuel; Brunel, Anne-Sophie; García, Estefanía; Isler, Burcu; Kern, Winfried V.; Palacios-Baena, Zaira R.; Maestro de la Calle, Guillermo; Montero, Maria Milagro; Kanj, Souha S.; Sipahi, Oguz R.; Calik, Sebnem; Márquez-Gómez, Ignacio; Marin, Jorge I.; Gomes, Marisa Z.R.; Hemmatti, Philipp; Araos Bralic, Rafael Ignacio; Peghin, Maddalena; Pozo, José Luis del; Yáñez, Lucrecia; Tilley, Robert; Manzur, Adriana; Novo, Andrés; Carratalà, Jordi; Gudiol, Carlota; Ironic study group
    Objectives: To assess the clinical features and outcomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection (PA BSI) in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies (HM) and with solid tumors (ST), and identify the risk factors for 30-day mortality. Methods: We performed a large multicenter, retrospective cohort study including onco-hematological neutropenic patients with PA BSI conducted across 34 centers in 12 countries (January 2006−May 2018). Episodes occurring in hematologic patients were compared to those developing in patients with ST. Risk factors associated with 30-day mortality were investigated in both groups. Results: Of 1217 episodes of PA BSI, 917 occurred in patients with HM and 300 in patients with ST. Hematological patients had more commonly profound neutropenia (0.1 × 109 cells/mm) (67% vs. 44.6%; p < 0.001), and a high risk Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) index score (32.2% vs. 26.7%; p = 0.05). Catheter-infection (10.7% vs. 4.7%; p = 0.001), mucositis (2.4% vs. 0.7%; p = 0.042), and perianal infection (3.6% vs. 0.3%; p = 0.001) predominated as BSI sources in the hematological patients, whereas pneumonia (22.9% vs. 33.7%; p < 0.001) and other abdominal sites (2.8% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.006) were more common in patients with ST. Hematological patients had more frequent BSI due to multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa (MDRPA) (23.2% vs. 7.7%; p < 0.001), and were more likely to receive inadequate initial antibiotic therapy (IEAT) (20.1% vs. 12%; p < 0.001). Patients with ST presented more frequently with septic shock (45.8% vs. 30%; p < 0.001), and presented worse outcomes, with increased 7-day (38% vs. 24.2%; p < 0.001) and 30-day (49% vs. 37.3%; p < 0.001) case-fatality rates. Risk factors for 30-day mortality in hematologic patients were high risk MASCC index score, IEAT, pneumonia, infection due to MDRPA, and septic shock. Risk factors for 30-day mortality in patients with ST were high risk MASCC index score, IEAT, persistent BSI, and septic shock. Therapy with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was associated with survival in both groups. Conclusions: The clinical features and outcomes of PA BSI in neutropenic cancer patients showed some differences depending on the underlying malignancy. Considering these differences and the risk factors for mortality may be useful to optimize their therapeutic management. Among the risk factors associated with overall mortality, IEAT and the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor were the only modifiable variables.
  • Publication
    Conocimiento y conductas asociadas al uso comunitario de antimicrobianos en adultos en Santiago de Chile
    (2022) Ross Pérez, Patricio; Barrera Quiroz, Javier; Ivys Palma, Paula; Radic Sierra, Catalina; Bellinghausen Scott, Matías; Ruiz-Tagle, Reyes, Matías; Blanc Arteaga, Josefina; Kline, Madeleine; Araos Bralic, Rafael Ignacio
    Introducción: El uso de antimicrobianos se asocia a efectos late rales como alergias, reacciones adversas específicas y emergencia de resistencia antimicrobiana. Resulta fundamental una comunicación de riesgo efectiva a la población general sobre su utilidad y potenciales problemas. Experiencias internacionales revelan un bajo grado de conocimiento en la comunidad en países sin políticas educativas dirigidas, lo que mejora tras su implementación; a nivel regional y nacional existen escasas publicaciones al respecto. Objetivo: Describir el grado de conocimiento y conductas sobre el uso de antimicrobianos en adultos de Santiago de Chile. Métodos: Estudio transversal realiza do mediante una encuesta a adultos en Santiago de Chile, evaluando cuatro aspectos sobre antimicrobianos: conocimiento, uso reciente, conductas sobre su uso y nociones sobre resistencia antimicrobiana. Resultados: Se encuestaron 300 personas entre 18 y 81 años (tres fueron descartadas posteriormente), siendo 75% de ellas menores de 45 años. Un 65% de los encuestados cree que los antibióticos antimicrobianos son activos frente a virus, 51% cree que sirven para tratar el resfrío común y 32% los ha utilizado sin receta. Un 51% ha escuchado el término resistencia antimicrobiana y 33% conoce su definición correcta. Conclusión: El conocimiento sobre la utilidad y problemas de los antimicrobianos en población chilena es deficiente, lo que podría favorecer su uso inapropiado.