Aloe vera peel-derived nanovesicles display anti-inflammatory properties and prevent myofibroblast differentiation

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Background: Aloe vera (AV) is a medicinal plant, most known for its beneficial effects on a variety of skin conditions. Its known active compounds include carbohydrates and flavonoids such as quercetin and kaempferol, among others. In the past decade, plant nanovesicles (NVs) have gained considerable interest as interkingdom communicators, presenting an opportunity for clinical standardization of natural products. In this study, we aimed to assess the potential of AVpNVs for the treatment of burn wounds. Methods: AVpNVs were isolated and characterized regarding vesicle yield (nanoparticle tracking analysis) and structure (transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy), as well as their protein content with proteomics. We assessed key characteristics for treating burn wounds in vitro, such as the anti-inflammatory potential in LPS-stimulated macrophages and keratinocytes, and the effect of AVpNVs on myofibroblast differentiation and contraction. Key findings: AVpNVs presented a homogenous NV population, vesicular shape, and NV-associated protein markers. AVpNVs significantly decreased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6. Furthermore, AVpNVs inhibited myofibroblast differentiation and significantly decreased their contractile potential in collagen matrices. Observed effects were linked to proteins identified in the isolates through proteomics analysis. Conclusion: AVpNVs displayed characteristics as an inflammatory modulator, while simultaneously diminishing myofibroblast differentiation and contraction. Novel strategies for burn wound treatment seek to decrease scarring on a cellular and molecular level in the early stages of wound healing, which makes AVpNVs a promising candidate for future plant-vesicle-based treatments.



Interkingdom communication, Nanotherapy, Plant extracellular vesicles


Ramírez O, Pomareda F, Olivares B, Huang YL, Zavala G, Carrasco-Rojas J, Álvarez S, Leiva-Sabadini C, Hidalgo V, Romo P, Sánchez M, Vargas A, Martínez J, Aguayo S, Schuh CMAP. Aloe vera peel-derived nanovesicles display anti-inflammatory properties and prevent myofibroblast differentiation. Phytomedicine. 2024 Jan;122:155108. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2023.155108